South Africa 1996



International Citrus Congress - Sun City, South Africa 12-17 May 1996

Eighth meeting of the International Society of Citriculture


Plenary Session

Nature and Scope of the South African Citrus Industry
J. Stanbury, Managing Director, Outspan International [pg. 7]

The Challenges of Marketing Fresh Fruit Globally - Market Magic or Market Murder
L. Kriel. Managing Director, Capespan International [pg. 12]

The Future of Citrus Fruits in the Fresh Produce World - A Discerning Customer's View
M. Taylor, Division Director - Food Group, Marks and Spencers [pg. 15]

The Role of Processing in Citrus Marketing
Dr. K. Fox, President of Separasystems and Director New Business Development, FMC Citrus Systems [pg. 19]

S.P. Monselise and A. Bar-Akiva - Pioneers of Modern Citrus Research in Israel
Goren R. and Goldschmidt E.E. [pg. 26]

New Cultivars in the Citrus Improvement Pipeline
Grosser J.W. and Gmitter F.G., Jr. [pg. 31]

Future Use of Plant Bioregulators
Guardiola J.L. [pg. 35]

The Impact of Biotechnology on Citriculture
Roose M.L. [pg. 41]

Water Stress and Carbon Budgets
J.P. Syvertsen [pg. 46]

Integrated Pest Management: Sustainable Pest Control for the Future Based on the Past?
G.A.C. Beattie and D. Smith [pg. 51]

Prolonging Citrus Fruit Shelf-Life: Recent Developments and Future Prospects
M. El-Otmani and A. Ait-Oubahou [pg. 59]

Challenges of Modern Citriculture: Canopy Management 
E. Rabe [pg. 70]

Challenges of Modern Citriculture: Citrus Diseases
P. Broadbent and L.W. Timmer [pg. 78]

Scions, Rootstocks and Breeding

A Biochemical Profile of Various Stionic Combinations of Sweet Orange (C. sinensis (L) Osbeck) - II Phenols and Peroxidase Enzyme 
Arora R.K., Mohammed D. and Siddiqui S. [pg. 86]

Requirements and Priorities for Citrus Germplasm Conservation 
Albrigo L.G. and Menini U. [pg. 92]

Assessment of Citrus Rootstocks for Citrus Nematode Resistance
Ferguson L.F., Van Gundy S.D. and Roose M.L. [pg. 95]

Evaluation of Five Citrus Cultivars on Minneola X Trifoliate and Other Rootstocks in the Sundays River Valley, South Africa 
Alexander C.J. [pg. 100]

Behaviour of Twelve Orange Varieties on Six Rootstocks in Argentina 
Anderson C.M. and Benalena H.N. [pg. 103]

Strategies and Considerations in Mandarin Improvement Programmes
Vardi A., Elhanati A., Frydman-Shani A. and Neumann H. [pg. 109]

Performance of Nine Grapefruit (Citrus Paradisi Macf. ) Cultivars under Hot. Subtropical Southern African Conditions 
Barry G.H. and Veldman F.J. [pg. 113]

A Comparison of Selata and Other Sweet Orange Cultivar in Sao Paulo
Donadio L.C., Banzatlo D.A., Sempionalo O.R. And Stuchi E.S. [pg. 116]

A Biochemical Profile of Various Stionic Combinations of Sweet Orange (C. Sinensis (L) Osbeck). I. Primary Metabolites 
Mohammed D., Arora R.K. and Yamdagni R. [pg. 119]

Physiological Traits of Various Stionic Combinations of Sweet Orange (C. Sinensis (L) Osbeck)
Mohammed D., Arora R.K. and Siddiqui S. [pg. 125]

Regeneration of Triploids from Citrus Endosperm
Jaskani M.J., Khan La. and Yaqub M.S. [pg. 128]

Morphological Description of Citrus Colchiploids
Jaskani M.J., Saghir-Ul-Husnain, Bashir M.A. and Khan I.A. [pg. 130]

Obtaining Triploid Plants by Crossing Citrus Limon CV ‘Femminello’ 2N X 4N Allotetraploid Somatic Hybrids
Tusa N., Faltadel Bosco S., Nardi L. and Lu Crelli S. [pg. 133]

Interploid Hybridization for the Improvement of Kinnow Mandarin
Khan I.A., Jaskani M.J. and Haider All S.N. [pg. 137]

Performance of 4 Scions on 21 Rootstocks in California
Roose M.L. [pg. 141]

Citrus Production Areas of Southern Africa
Barry G.H. [pg. 145]

Strategies for Breeding and Evaluation of Citrus Rootstocks and Cultivars in South Africa
Breedt H.J., Froneman I.J., Miller J.E. and Human C.F. [pg. 150]

The Result of Citrus Breeding in Iran
Anvari F., Ebrahimi Y. and Jahanguirzadeh E. [pg. 154]

The South African Cultivar Development Programme and Cultivar Usage in Southern Africa
Barry G.H., Alexander C.J. and Veldman F.I. [pg. 156]

Producing Seedless Citrus Cultivars with Gamma Irradiation
Froneman I.J., Breedt H.J. and Koekemoer P.J.J. [pg. 159]

Evaluation of Rootstocks for Grapefruit in South Africa
Breedt H.J., Snyman J.C. and Koekemoer P.J.J. [pg. 164]

New Hybrids as Citrus Rootstocks in Spain
Forner J.B., Alcaide A., Verdejo L.S. and Sorribas F.J. [pg. 167]

Performance of 'Miyagawa' Satsuma on Three Rootstocks in Sicily
Conlinella G. and Genlile A. [pg. 171]

'Clemenpons' and ' Loretina'. Two Early Clementine Mandarin Mutations of Potential Interest
Bono R., Soler J. and Fernandez de Cordova L. [pg. 174]

Clementine Mandarin Evaluation in New Zealand
Harry A.R., Sutton P.G. and Machin T. [pg. 177]

Promising Citrus Hybrids Selected from the South African Breeding Programme
Miller J.E., Breedt H.J., Maritz J.G.J. and Froneman I.J. [pg. 181]

Fingerprinting Citrus Cultivars with Inter-SSR Markers
Fang D. and Roose M.L. [pg. 185]

Triploid Plants Regenerated from Crossing Diploid Pummelo and Tangerine with Allotetraploid Somatic Hybrid of Citrus 
Deng X.X., Yi H.L., Li F. and Guo W.W. [pg. 189]

Evaluating New Selections of Late Hanging Navel Oranges
Gallasch P.T. [pg. 193]

Field Evaluation of Australian Clones of Valencia Orange
Gallasch P.T. [pg. 198]

Somaclonal Variation in Sweet Orange - A Tool for Cultivar Improvement
Grosser J.W., Gmitter E.G. Jr. and Chandler J.L. [pg. 203]

Grapefruit Cultivar Evaluation
Donadio L.C., Sempionato O.R., Banzatto D.A. and Enciso Garay C.R. [pg. 207]

Micro Propagation of Some Indigenous Citrus Germplasm from Darjeeling Hills
Mukhopadhyay S., Thapa K., Rai (Pradhan) J. and Gurung A. [pg. 210]

Characterization of Pollen Grains of the Orange Subfamily. Aurantioideae
Nito N., Katayama Y. and Yamaguchi S. [pg. 212]

Resistance or Tolerance of Citrus Species and Cultivars to Citrus Variegated Chlorosis
Li W., Donadio L.C., Berctla M J.G., Sempionato O.R. and Miranda V.S. [pg. 216]

'Valentina' and 'Clementina': Two Promising Hybrids Obtained at the Jaguey Grande Citrus Experiment Station
Bello L. [pg. 219]

Interstocks for Pera Sweet Orange and Rangpur Lime
Carlos E.F. and Donadio L.C. [pg. 221]

Characterization of Two Late-Ripening Clementines
Continella G., La Rosa G. and Deng Z.N. [pg. 225]

Rapid Release of Plant Material to the South African Citrus Improvement Programme
Fourie C.J. and Van Vuuren S.P. [pg. 228]

Evaluation of Grapefruit and Valencia Cultivars in South Africa
Human C.F., Steenekamp P.J., Snyman J.C. and Maritz J.G.J. [pg. 231]

Bio-Agronomical Behaviour and Fruit Quality Characteristics of Eight Clementine (Citrus reticulata, Blanco) Selections in Sardinia
Lovicu G., Pala M. and Farci M. [pg. 234]

Screening of Potential Rootstocks for 'Eureka' Lemon in the Sundays River Valley
Miller J.E., Maritz J.G.J., Bird P. and Breedt H.J. [pg. 239]

Screening of Potential Rootstocks for 'McClean' Navel and 'Delta' Valencia in the Sundays River Valley
Miller J.E., Maritz J.G.J., Bird P. and Breedt H.J. [pg. 243]

Genetic Relationships in Citrus and Related Genera
Herrero R., Asins M.J., Pina J.A., Carbonell E.A. and Navarro L. [pg. 248]

In Vitro Rescue and Selection of Spontaneous Triploids by Flow Cytometry for Easy Peeler Citrus Breeding
Ollitrault P., Dambier D., Allent V., Luro F. and Jacquemond C [pg. 254]

Standard and Dwarfing Rootstocks to Overcome Unproductivity of 'Comune' Clementine
Reforgiato R.G., Caruso A., Marino R. and Russo G. [pg. 259]

Behaviour of Three Triploid Lemon Hybrid Progenies with Regard to Natural Infection of 'Mal Secco' Disease and Tree Growth
Russo G. and Starrantino A. [pg. 263]

Evaluation of Rootstocks for Valencia in South Africa
Snyman J.C., Breedt H.J., Miller J.E. and Koekemoer P.J.J [pg. 268]

'Sirio' is a Promising New Mandarin Hybrid of Satsuma and Clementine
Tribulato E. and La Rosa G. [pg. 271]

Lemon Production in Southern Africa
Veldman F.J., Barry G.H. and Alexander C.J. [pg. 273]

Practical Methods for Resistance Evaluations of Citrus Varieties to Citrus Variegated Chlorosis
Li W.B., Donadio L.C., Beretta M.J.G., Rosetti V. and Sempionato O.R. [pg. 276]

Clone Selection of Sweet Orange 'Pera' (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck) to Citrus Variegated Chlorosis
Li W.B., Donadio L.C., Sempionato O.R., Rossetti V. and Beretta M.J.G. [pg. 280]

Seedling Resistance of 20 Citrus Rootstocks to Citrus Variegated Chlorosis
Li W. B., Donadio L.C., Beretta M.J.G., Rossetti V., Stuchi E.S., Sempionato. O.R., Coutinho A. and Miranda V.S. [pg. 283]

Effect of 20 Rootstocks on the Severity of Citrus Chlorosis (CVC) of Sweet Orange 'Pera' (C sinensis (L.) Osbeck)
Li W.R, Donadio L.C., Sempionato O.R., Rossetti V., Stuchi E.S. and Beretta Mj.G. [pg. 286]

Tolerance of Seedlings of Six Citrus Rootstocks to High Soil Calcium Carbonate Content
El-Otmani M. [pg. 290]

Economics, Marketing and Trade

The Development of a Product Description Language for Citrus Marketing
Beattie B.B. and Revelant L.J. [pg. 296]

Structural Characteristics of the Italian Citrus Industry
La Via G. and Sturiale C. [pg. 299]

The Citrus Industry in Chile
Ortiizar J.E., Gardiazabal F. and Maghdal C. [pg. 304]

Modelling the Financial Returns of New and Existing Citrus Orchards to Assist Decision Making for Optimum Economic Returns
Pyle K.R. [pg. 308]

Main Technical and Economic Characteristics of Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) in the Aegean Region of Turkey
Balkan C. and Ulubelde M. [pg. 313]

The Evolution and Prospective Demands for Red Orange Juice
Sturiale L, and Zarba A.S. [pg. 316]

A Proposed Database for Evaluation of Citrus Germplasm
Shiraishi S., Shiraishi M., Mihara M. and Widodo S.E. [pg. 321]

Processing and Biochemistry of Citrus Products

The Interrelation of Fruit Quality Parameters of Ponkan Mandarin
Fan N.T. and Chuang C.T. [pg. 326]

A National Citrus Quality Strategy
Revelant L., Beattie B.B., Wilhy R., Hiskins J., Edwards M., Bennet R., Moulds J.G. and Tugwell B.L. [pg. 329]

Essential Oil Composition of a Triploid Lemon Hybrid
Gazca F., Calvarano I., Calvarano M., Russo G. and Starrantino A. [pg. 331]

High Humidity Packaging Extends Life of Easy Peeler Citrus reticulata Fruits
Ben-Yehoshua S., Rodov V., Peretzj. and Fishman S. [pg. 334]

Diseases and Control Strategies

Epidemiology of Fruit and Leaf Spot of Citrus Caused by Phaeoramularia Angolensis in Kenya: An Overview
Seif A.A. and Hillocks R.J. [pg. 338]

Dispersion of Citrus Canker Bacteria in Droplets and Prevention with Windbreaks
Koizumi M., Kimijima E., Tsukamoto T., Togawa M. and Masui S. [pg. 340]

Effect of Kresoxim-Methyl and Azoxystrobin for the Control of a Benzimidazole Resistant Strain of Citrus Black Spot
SchuttE G.C., Tollig B., Mansfield R.I. and Kotze J.M. [pg. 345]

A Study of the Effect of Various Disease Control Programs on Spore Releases of the Citrus Black Spot Pathogen Guicnardia Citricarpa Keily
Smith J.H. [pg. 351]

Assay of Sour Orange Somatic Hybrid Rootstocks for Quick-Decline Disease Caused by Citrus Tristeza Virus
Grosser J.W., Garnsey S.M. and Halliday C. [pg. 353]

The Effect of Tristeza Stem Pitting on the Star Ruby Grapefruit Industry in Southern Africa
Marais L.J. and Breytenbach J.H.J. [pg. 357]

A Virus-Free Citrus Budwood Program for Texas
Skaria M., Da Graca J.V., Baker J., Solis-Gracia N., Kahlke C. and Roistacher C.N. [pg. 366]

BAS 490 F: A New Fungicidal Strobilurin for the Control of Citrus Black Spot (CBS)
Tollig B., van der Merwe J.L. and Schutte G.C. [pg. 369]

The Use of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers for the Detection of Genetic Diversity in Phyllosticta citricarpa
Schutte G.C., Visser A.A., Oosthuizen M.C. and Kotze J.M [pg. 373]

Brown Spot of Minneola Tangelo and Efficacy of Fungicidal Spray Programmes for Disease Control in South Africa
Swart S.H., Wingfield M.J., Swart W.J. and Schutte G.C. [pg. 379]

Influence of the Scion on the Response of Sour Orange Rootstock to Experimentally Induced Phytophthora Gummosis and Root Rot
Ippolito A., Nigro F. and Lima G. [pg. 385]

Effectiveness of Fosetyl-Al and Metalaxyl Against Phytophthora Root Rot in Sour Orange Grafted with Clementine Mandarin
Ippolito A., Nigro F. and Lima G. [pg. 389]

Biological Control with Fungi Antagonistic Against Phytophthora Root Rot of Citrus
Tsao P.H., Fang J.G., Sztejnberg A. and Daft G.C. [pg. 394]

Control of Soilborne Pathogens of Citrus Seedlings in Composted Pine Bark Medium
Laing M.D., Beattie H.V. and Smith I.E. [pg. 397]

Internal Core Rots of Citrus Fruit in South Morocco
Achouri M. and Tabaght L. [pg. 402]

Effect of TBZ, Acetaldehyde, Citral and Thymus Capitatus Essential Oil on 'Minneola Tangelo' Fruit Decay 
Arras G., Agabbio M. and Piga A. [pg. 406]

Potential Alternative Decay Control Strategies for South African Citrus Packhouses
de Villiers E.E., van Dyk K., Swart S.H., Smit J.H. and Korsten L. [pg. 410]

The Efficacy of Prochloraz (Omega) Against Post-Harvest Diseases
Lesar K.H. and du Toil Pelser P. [pg. 415]

Observations on the Biology of Stem End Rot Pathogens
Wright J.G., Johnson G.I. and Hyde K.D. [pg. 418]

Effects of BAS 490 F on the Development and Morphology of Plant Pathogens
Gold R.E., Stark-Umau M., Leinhos G.M.E. And Speakman J.B. [pg. 423]

Effect of Naphthazarin Toxins, Produced by Fusarium Solani on Three Citrus Rootstocks in a Hydroponic System
Janse van Rensburg J.C. and Labuschagne N. [pg. 427]

The Role of Fusarium Solani inCitrus Root Disease - An Overview of 10 Years of Research in South Africa
Labuschagne N., van Rensburg J.C., Strauss J. and Grundling G. [pg. 431]

New Developments in Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC) Research at Fundecitrus, Brazil
De Lima J.E.O., Coutinho A., Roberto S.R., Miranda V.S., Carlos E.F., Salva R. and Massari C. [pg. 435]

Field Trials on the Behaviour of Potential Lemon Rootstocks towards Mal Secco Disease. Basal and Root Infection of Lemon Grafted and Ungrafted Rootstocks 
Nigro F., Ippolito A., Lima G. and Salerno M. [pg. 440]

The California Citrus Clonal Protection Program
Gumpf J., Semancik J.S., Bash J., Greer G., Diaz J., Serna R. and Gonzales R. [pg. 445]

Population Dynamics of Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri on Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Citrus Leaves under Various Environmental Conditions
Timmer L.W., Zitko S.E. and Gottwald T.R. [pg. 448]

Management of Citrus Dieback in India
Raychaudhuri S.P. [pg. 452]

Inhibitory Action of Micro-Organisms Isolated from Citrus Fruits Against Penicilium Digitatum
Arras G. [pg. 456]

Effect of Different Paclobutrazol Applications on Natural Infection of Mal Secco Disease and Yield of Kutdiken Lemon
Cimen I., Cinar A. and Erkilic A. [pg. 461]

Citrus Black Spot in the Northeast of Entre Rios: Etiology, Epidemology and Control
Garran S.M. [pg. 466]

CTV Strain Severity in New Zealand
Dawson T.E., Mooney P.A. and Harty A.R. [pg. 472]

Change from Tolerance to Susceptibility to Citrus Tristeza Virus in Two 'Valencia' Orange Cultivars
Koller O.L. and Soprano E. [pg. 474]

Antifungal Activity of Natural Plant Oils Against Alternaria citri, the Navel-end Rot Pathogen
Poswal M.A.T. [pg. 478]

The Effects of Fungicide and Fertilization on the Control of Black Spot in Citrus (Guignardla citricarpa)
Rodriguez V.A. and Mazza Gaiad S.A. [pg. 482]

Pests and Control Strategies

Problems Which We Face in Bringing Red Scale, Anatolia avrantii (Mascle), under Biological Control in Citrus Orchards in South Africa
Bedford E.C.G. [pg. 485]

Seasonal Development of California Red Scale (Homoptera: Diaspididae) and Aphytis melinus De Bach (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) on Citrus in Eastern Sicily
Tumminelli R., Conti F., Saraceno F., Raciti E, and Schiliro E [pg. 493]

A Ecologically Based IPM Program for Citrus in California's San Joaquin Valley Using Augmentative Biological Control
Luck R.F., Forster L.D. and Morse J.G. [pg. 499]

The Role of Natural Enemies of California Red Scale in an IPM Program in California Citrus
Forster L.D. and Luck R.F. [pg. 504]

Management Options for Citrus Thrips in California 
Morse J.G. [pg. 508]

Aphytis Augmentation in the Southern African Lowveld. Do We Make a Difference? 
Ware A.B. and Pasques B.P. [pg. 511]

Citrus Thrips in New Zealand
Blank R.H. and Gill G.S.C. [pg. 515]

Managing Scirtothrips aurantii on Citrus in Southern Africa
Grout T.G. and Stephen P.R. [pg. 519]

The Effects of Insect Growth Regulator Use on IPM in Southern African Citrus
Hattingh V. and Tate B.A. [pg. 523]

Integrated Pest Management on Citrus in the Eastern Cape. South Africa: A Review
du Toit W.J. [pg. 526]

Integrated Pest Management in Cuba Citrus Groves
Otero O., Castellanos A., Mora I, Rodriguez N., Carera R.I., Gonzalez C., Arteaga E., Broch R., Montes M., Fernandez O. and Borges M. [pg. 530]

Efficacy of Imidacloprid vs. Citrus Leafminer (CLM). Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, in Florida, USA
Bullock R.C. and Pelosi R.R. [pg. 536]

First Studies on the Citrus Leaf-Miner, Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera : Gracillariidae) on Reunion Island
Quilici S., Franck A., Vincenot D., Montagneux B. and Pastou D. [pg. 542]

Citrus Leafminer. Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton: the Florida Experience
Knapp J.L. [pg. 549]

Pesticide Resistance in Armored Scale Influences Citrus IPM in California
Grafton-Cardwell E.E., Striggow R.A. and Ouyang Y. [pg. 553]

A Control Strategy for the White Powdery Scale, Cribrolecanium andersoni (Newstead) -A Pest of Citrus in South Africa
Brink T. [pg. 556]

The Pest Status of Mealybugs on Citrus in Southern Africa
Hattingh V. and Tate B.A. [pg. 560]

Seasonal Occurrence and Age-Specific Mortality of the Spiny Blackfly, Alevrocanthus spiniferus (Hem.: Aleyrodidae) in Nelspruit, Mpumalanga, South Africa
van den Berg M.A., de Beer S.M. and Greenland J. [pg. 564]

Area-Wide Control of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly on Madeira with the Sterile Insect Technique
Pereira R., Barbosa A.M., Brazao A., Carvalho J.P. and Lindquist D.A. [pg. 568]

The Biology and Control of Fullers Rose Weevil (Asynonychus cerrinus Boheman) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Citrus
Edwards M.E. [pg. 573]

Diflubenzuron: A New Management Tool for Citrus Root Weevils and Citrus Leafminer
Grosscurt A.C. and Weiland R.T. [pg. 579]

Mite Markets and Mite Management Control Strategies Using Propargite and Diflubenzuron
Graham J.C. and Moore R.C. [pg. 584]

Chemical Control of Tylenchulus semipenetrans in a South African Citrus Orchard
Le Roux H.F., Ware A.B., Pretorius M.C., Kotze J.M. and Wehner F.C. [pg. 588]

Accelerated Degradation of Some Soil Applied Nematicides in a South African Citrus Orchard
Le Roux H.F., Ware A.B., Suett D.L. and Wehner F.C. [pg. 593]

Integrated Citrus Pest Management in Citrus Orchards on Reunion Island: Experimentation and Extension
Vincenot D. and Quilici S. [pg. 597]

Pesticide Use on Citrus in Southeast Asia
Catling H.D. [pg. 601]

Citrus Psylla. Trioza erytreae (Hem.: Triozidae), Vector of the Greening Disease in South Africa
van den Berg M.A. [pg. 607]

Insect Pests of Citrus in Portugal 
Carvalho J.P.M., Franco J.C., Aguiar F. and Soares A.O. [pg. 613]

The Citrus Woolly Whitefly in Eastern and Southern Africa: Distribution, Indigenous Natural Enemies and Control Strategy
Lohr B. [pg. 619]

A Laptop Computer Based Decision Support Tool for Managing Citrus Rust Mite Populations
Rogers J.S. and McCoy C.W. [pg. 625]

Trials on Pesticide Deposition in Citrus Trees
Cerrulo E., Failla S. and Schillaci G. [pg. 632]

A Review of IPM Strategies for Citrus Root Weevils with Emphasis on Microbial Control
McCoy C.W., Duncan L.W., and Quintela E.D. [pg. 638]

Impact of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on Some Citrus Pests in Eastern Sicily
Tumminelli R., Saraceno F., Conli F., Raciti E. and Schiliro E. [pg. 642]

Resistance Management for California Red Scale. Aonidiella avrantii (Mask): Insecticide Resistance Action Committee Guidelines
Graham J.C. and Streibret H.P. [pg. 649]

A Strategy of Integrated Pest Management in Eastern Sicily Citrus: First Results and Economic Evaluation
Raciti E., Tuimninelli R., Marano G., Conti F., Barraco D., Dinatale A., Fisicaro R. and Schiliro E. [pg. 652]

Development of Citrus Leafminer Damage on Peel of Maturing Citrus Fruit
Pelosi R.R., Killer E.E. and Bullock R.C. [pg. 659]

Indigenous Natural Enemies of Citrus Thrips Scirtothrips Aurantii Suitable for Mass Rearing
Grout T.G. and Stephen P.R. [pg. 663]

Technique for Mass Rearing the Hymenopteran Mealybug Parasitoid Coccidoxenoides Peregrinus
Hatlingh V. and Tate B.A. [pg. 665]

Natural Enemies of the Spiny Blackfly, Alevrocanthus spiniferus (Hem.: Aleyrodidae), in Mpumalanga South Africa
van den Berg M.A. and de Beer M.S. [pg. 667]

Description of the Host-Parasite Relationship of the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne Citri with Citrus Unshiu
Vovlas N., Zhang D. and Zhang S. [pg. 670]

Cultural Practices

Effects of Microsprinkler Pattern Area on Florida Grapefruit
Boman B.J. [pg. 673]

Effects of Micro Irrigation Frequency on Florida Grapefruit
Boman B.J. [pg. 678]

Response of Clementine Citrus Trees to Irrigation and Nitrogen Rates under Drip Irrigation
Castel J.R. and Ginestar C. [pg. 683]

Comparison of Four Scheduling Methods for the Irrigation of Citrus
Mostert P.G. and Hoffman J.E. [pg. 688]

Florida Citrus Irrigation with Municipal Reclaimed Water
Parsons L.R. and Wheaton T.A. [pg. 692]

Groundwater Nitrate under Florida Citrus Groves
Wutscher H.K. [pg. 696]

Application of Viroids Selected for Dwarfing Citrus
Semancik J.S., Rakowski A.G., Bash J.A. and Gumpf D.J. [pg. 701]

Response of Valencia Trees on Different Rootstocks to Two Citrus Viroid Isolates
van Vuuren S.P. and da Graca J.V. [pg. 705]

Application of Transmissible Agents from Dwarfed Field Trees to Control Tree Size of Sweet Orange
van Vuuren S.P. and da Graca J.V. [pg. 711]

Inhibition of Nitrification by Dicyandiamide (DCD) in Citrus Soils
Serna M.D., Legaz F. Munoz N., Martin B. and Primo-Millo E. [pg. 718]

Improvement of Internal Fruit Quality in 'Mihowase' Satsuma by Summer Girdling and Regulated Deficit Irrigation
Peng Y.H. and Rabe E. [pg. 725]

Fruit Size and Fruit Quality of 'Star-Ruby' Grapefruit as Affected by Foliar Spray of Monopotassium Phosphate (MKP)
Lavon R., Shapchiski S., Mohel E. and Zur N. [pg. 730]

Fruit Size Prediction in 'Clementine' and 'Satsuma' Mandarin and Improvement of 'Clementine' Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) Fruit Size by 2,4 - DP
Rabe E., Koch N.C. and Theron K.I. [pg. 737]

A Possible Hormonal Basis for Vigor/Dwarfing in Commercially Important Citrus Rootstocks
Bertling I. and Lovatt C.J. [pg. 745]

Physiological and Biochemical Aspects of Dwarfing in Citrus: Carbohydrate and Nitrogen Levels in the Trunks
Bester J.J. and Rabe E. [pg. 748]

Mycorrhizae and Oxihumate Effects on Citrus Nursery Tree Performance at Different Fertigation Levels in a Bark and Sand Medium in Containers
Van Zyl A.J.J. [pg. 754]

Potassium Fertilizers and Orange Postharvest Quality
Berger H., Opazo J., Orellana S. and Galletti L. [pg. 759]

Effect of Climate on Leaf Analysis Norms for Valencia
du Plessis S.F. [pg. 762]

A Direct Light Penetration Model for Optimal Plantation Design of Citrus Orchards
Gussakovsky E.E., Sadowsky A., Rottman N. Hertzano Y. and Shahak Y. [pg. 767]

Responses of Citrus Trees in Texas to Foliar and Soil Zn Applications
Swietlik D. [pg. 772]

Utilization of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi in Citrus Orchards
Ishii T. and Kadoya K. [pg. 777]

Inter American Citrus Network, IACNET
Perez M.C., Cordeu J.L., Correa A., Suarez E. [pg. 781]

Control Strategy Against Citrus Rust Mite (Phyllocoptruta oleivora, Ashm.): A Two Year Study
Castro O., Casamayor R., Castro L. and Guerrero E. [pg. 785]

Orange Fruit Maturity and Quality Studies in Chile
Ortuzar J.E. [pg. 790]

Computerised Nutritional Data Interpretation. and Preparation of Fertiliser Recommendations for Tree Crop Production Systems
Lee L.S. and Mayer D.G. [pg. 794]

The Correct Use of Pruning Triturators in Citrus Orchards
Blandini G. and Cerruto E. [pg. 803]

Wastewater Irrigation of Citrus Trees
Lapena L., Cerezo M., Morcll I. and Garcia-Agustin P. [pg. 808]

Estimation of Optimum Yield in 'Ponkan' Mandarin by Alternate Bearing Intensity
Hwang A.S. and Hsu H.T. [pg. 813]

Yield and Nutritional Parameters Related to Quantity and Quality of Bergamot Oil
Intrigliolo F., Caruso A., Giuffrida A., Russo G., Gazea F., Allegra M., Roccuzzo G. and Calvarano M. [pg. 817]

Effect of a Sod Culture System of Bahia Grass (Paspalum notatum flugge) on Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Formation on Satsuma Mandarin Trees
Ishii T., Shrestha Y.H. and Kadoya K. [pg. 822]

Spacing Densities: An Economic Perspective
Rabe E., Warrington J. and Toua J. [pg. 825]

Effect of Lime Incorporation Depth and Lime Levels on the Development of Two Citrus Rootstocks under Greenhouse Conditions
Soprano E. and Koller O.L. [pg. 832]


Isozyme Densitometry for Identification of Trjploid Citrus
Lee L.S. and King B.J. [pg. 836]

Simple and Quick Procedures for Preparing Citrus Genomic DNA for PCR Analysis
Deng Z., Gmitter F.G., Jr. and Huang S. [pg. 841]

Progress Toward Isolating the CTV-Immunity Gene
Gmitter F.G., Jr., Xiao S., Huang S., Crosby K. and Dengam Z. [pg. 845]

Parentage Determination of Some Citrus Hybrids by Molecular Markers
Deng Z.N., Gentile A., Nicolosi E., Continella G. and Tribulato E. [pg. 849]

Production of Disease Free Darjeeling Orange Plants by the Shoot Tip Grafting Technique
Mukhopadhyay S., (Pradhan) Jaishree R., Sharma B.C., Gurang A. and Sengupta R.K. [pg. 855]

Transformation of Citrus sinensis Osbeck by Agrobacterium rihzogenes and Regeneration of Transformed Plantlets
Jinhua L., Mingyang L. and Hong C. [pg. 858]

Citrus Genome Mapping with Molecular Markers: Two Maps Obtained by Segregation Analysis of Progeny of one Intergeneric Cross
Luro F., Laigret F., Lorieux M. and Ollilrault P. [pg. 862]

Inheritance of Organelle Genomes in Citrus
Moreira C.D., Chase C, Gmitter F.G., Jr. and Grosser J.W [pg. 867]

Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation and Regeneration of Citrus
Pena L. Cervera M., Juarez J., Navarro A., Ortega C. Pina J.A., Duran-Vila N. and Navarro L. [pg. 871]

A Monoembryonic Mutant Line from Citrus Sinensis Osbeck 
Jinhua L. and Zhenchuan R. [pg. 877]

Different Aspects of Citrus Style and Stigma Culture
Carimi F., de Pasquale F. and Crescimanno F.G. [pg. 879]

First Results on Isolated Microspore Culture of Citrus
Germana M.A., Scarano M.T. and Crescimanno F.G. [pg. 882]

Isolation of Novel Responsive Genes from Citrus Calyx That Are Highly Homologous to Gene Encoding for Mammalian and Plant Protein Kinases
Zhong G., Riov J., Goren R., and Holland D. [pg. 886]

Globular Embryoid Development in Citrus
Mooney P.A., Watson M. and Harty A.R. [pg. 889]

Gene Analysis of Sucrose Phosphate Synthase in Citrus
Komatsu A., Takanokura Y., Omura M. and Akihama T. [pg. 890]

An Efficient Protocol for the Isolation of High Molecular Weight DNA from Citrus and RFLP Analysis after Separation of Large DNA Fragments by Pulsed Field Electrophoresis
Luro F., Laigret L. and Ollitrault P. [pg. 895]

A New Set of Cytoplasmic Markers Based on Amplification Reaction: Application for Taxonomy and Control of Somatic Hybridization
Luro F. and Ollitrault P. [pg. 899]

In Vitro Culture of Juice Vesicles of 'Star Ruby' Grapefruit and 'Moro' Blood Orange 
Micalizio L., Di Marco D., Rapisarda P. and Starrantirjo A. [pg. 903]

Somatic Hybridisation in Citrus: Some New Hybrids and Alloplasmic Plants 
Ollitrault P., Dambier D., Sudahono and Luro F. [pg. 907]

Production of Haploid Plants and Embryogenic Calli of Clementine of (Citrus reticulata Blanco) after In Situ Parthenogenesis Induced by Irradiated Pollen
Ollitrault P., Allent V. and Luro F. [pg. 913]

Analysis of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) cDNA Library Derived from Young Seeds
Hisada S., Moriguchi T., Hidaka T., Koltunow A.M., Akihama T. and Omura M. [pg. 918]

Plant Physiology

Recent Findings in the Mechanism of Action of the Synthetic Auxins Used to Improve Fruit Size of Citrus
Agusti M., Zaragoza S., El-Otmani M., Almela V. and Primo-Millo E. [pg. 922]

Thinning of 'Esbal' Clementine with 2,4 -Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid. Influence on Yield, Fruit Size and Fruit Quality
Duarte A.M.M., Trindade D.T.G. and Guardiola J.L. [pg. 929]

Effects of NAA. 2,4-D and 2,4-DP on Yield, Fruit Size and Creasing of 'Valencia' Orange 
Greenberg J., Eshel G. and Gotfreed A. [pg. 934]

Integrating Temperature Effects on Fruit Growth into a Citrus Productivity Model 
Buslan A., Erner Y. and Goldschmidt E.E. [pg. 938]

Modification of the Time and Intensity of Flowering in Citrus Cultivars by Water Stress, Light and Growth Regulators 
Tamim M., Altman A., Goren R. and Goldschmidt E.E. [pg. 945]

Electron Microscopic Observations on Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Okitsu Wase) Young Leaves Sprayed with Urea
Aguja S.E., Shiraishi M. and Kinomoto K. [pg. 949]

Synthetic Auxins and Citrus Fruit Size. Strategies for Use and Mechanism of Action
Guardiola J.L. [pg. 953]

Fruit Size in Citrus: The Action of and Interaction Between Gibberellic Acid and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy Acid on Citrus Mandarin Clementine Fruit Growth and Size
van Rensburg P.J.J., Peng S., Wolstenholme B.N. and Guardiola J.L. [pg. 961]

Increasing Crop Value of Find Clementine Mandarin with Plant Growth Regulators
van Rensburg P.J.J., Peng S., Garcia-Luis A., Fornes F. And Guardiola J.L. [pg. 970]

The Effect of Potassium Nutrition on Citrus Tree Stress under Varying Levels of Evaporative Demand
Bower J.P. and Wolstenholme B.N. [pg. 975]

The Effect of Alleviating Soil Compaction on Yield and Fruit Size in an Established Navel Orange Orchard
Abercrombie R.A. and Hoffman J.E. [pg. 979]

Effect of Bud Age on Sprouting and Flowering in Clementine Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco, cv. Nules)
Krajewski A.J. and Rabe E. [pg. 984]

Shoot Development in Spring Affects Satsuma Mandarin Fruit Quality
Richardson A.C. and Blank R.H. [pg. 989]

Growth and Properties of Lemon Fruit According to the Season of Fruit Set
Razeto B. and Villavicencio A. [pg. 994]

Effects of Pre-Bloom Trunk Cincturing on the Type of Inflorescences, Parthenocarpic Fruit Set and Yield of Pummelo Trees Grown in a Greenhouse
Yamanishi O.K. and Hasegawa K. [pg. 997]

Studies on Reducing Oleocellosis Damage in the Palmer Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) During Harvest
Gilfillan I.M. [pg. 1007]

Transfer: A New Abscission Agent
Wilcox M. and Taylor J.B. [pg. 1013]

Stomata, Transpiration and Photosynthesis of Citrus Orange Fruit
Blanke M.M. [pg. 1017]

Toxin of Phoma Tracheiphila Elicits PR-Protein Accumulation in Citrus Cell Culture
Gentile A., Domina F. and Deng Z.N. [pg. 1021]

The Role of Extracellular Glycoproteins on Citrus Somatic Embryogenesis
Gentile A., Gavish H., Vardi A. and Fluhr R. [pg. 1024]

Organosilicone Surfactants as Adjuvants for Agrochemicals in Citrus
Policello G.A., Stevens P.J.G. and Coggins C.W. [pg. 1028]

Morphological Deformations of Satsuma Mandarin Roots under High Temperatures and Limited Soil Moisture Condition
Mohammad P., Shiraishi M. and Koike S. [pg. 1033]

Evaluation of Citrus for Adaptation and Yield Potential in Botswana with Special References to Ngamiland (Maun)
Machacha D. [pg. 1038]

Fresh Weight and Leaf Mineral Contents of Five Citrus Rootstocks as Affected by Saline Water
Aljuburi H.J. and Al-Masry H. [pg. 1043]

Factors Affecting the Duration of the Bloom Period of 'Clemenules' Mandarin
Almela V., Medina F., Juan M. and Agusti M. [pg. 1048]

Reproductive Phenological Behaviour of ‘Nova’ and ‘Clementina de Nules’ Mandarins in Uruguay
Arias M., Ronca F., Arbiza H. and Gravina A. [pg. 1052]

Factors Underlying the Response to Salt Stress in Citrus Trees
Banuls J., Serna M.D., Legaz F., Talon M. and Primo-Millo E. [pg. 1057]

The Determination and Verification of Climatic Norms for Export Quality Fresh Citrus Production
Barry G.H., Holmes M., Veldman F.J., Wibbelink M., Rust L. and Monnik K. [pg. 1062]

Colorimetric Analysis for Determining Leaf Water Status in Citrus
Deidda P., Arca B., Ventura A., Spano D. and Duce P. [pg. 1065]

Flowering and Fruit Set on 'Fortune' Hybrid Mandarin: Effect of Girdling and Growth Regulators
Duarte A.M.M. and Guardiola J.L. [pg. 1069]

Possibilities and Limitations of Using Ethephon to Promote Colour Development of Clementine Fruits
El-Otmani M., Tadili A. and Ait-Oubahou A. [pg. 1072]

Use of Auxins to Improve Fruit Size of Clementine Mandarin - Effect on Vegetative Growth and Fruit Quality
El-Otmani M., Kadri B., Ait-Oubahou A. and Agusti M. [pg. 1076]

Flowering-Fruiting Interrelationships in 'Ellendale' Tangor under the Growing Conditions of Spain and Uruguay
Gravina A., Arbiza H., Juan M., Almela V. and Agusti M. [pg. 1081]

Cloning of the ACC Synthase Gene in Satsuma Mandarin
Ikoma Y., Yano M., Ogawa K. and Moriguchi T. [pg. 1086]

Effect of Gibberellic Acid and Vapor Gard on CO 2 Evolved, Respiration Rate and Stomatal Movement of Young Sour Orange Seedlings
Khattab. M.M. and Guindy L.F. [pg. 1089]

Effect of AVG on Inhibition of Physiological Fruit Drop in Satsuma Mandarin
Ogata T., Fujita H., Hirota T., Shiozaki S., Horiuchi S., Kawase K. and Kato A. [pg. 1094]

Changes in Growth and Concentration of Paclobutrazol Residue in Leaves, Roots and Soil after a Yearly Application to Satsuma Mandarin for Nine Years
Okuda H., Kihara T. and Iwagaki I. [pg. 1098]

Induced Local Disease Resistance in Citrus Mesocarp (Albedo): Accumulation of Phytoalexins and PR-Proteins
Rodov V., Burns P., Ben-Shalom N., Fluhr R. and Ben-Yehoshua S. [pg. 1101]

The Control of Peel-Pitting of 'Fortune' Mandarin
Zaragoza S. . Gazzola R., Almela V., Trenor I., Juan M., Alonso E., Primo-Millo E. and Agusti M. [pg. 1105]

Senesence Markers in Citrus
Garcia Puig D., Ortuno F., Sabater F., Del Rio J.A., Porras I. And Garcia Lidon A. [pg. 1110]

Internal and External Colour Oranges in Different Grapefruit Varieties
Porras I., Garcia A., Egea C, Conesa A., Garda-Legaz M.F., and Ortiz J.M. [pg. 1113]

Relationship between Net Photosynthesis and Transpiration Rate in Citrus Trees
Germana C. and Sardo V. [pg. 1117]

Harvesting and Postharvest Physiology

Trials on Citrus Fruit Recognition by Colour Image Vision
Cerruto E., Manetto G. and Schillaci G. [pg. 1122]

Fruit Quality Control of Satsuma Mandarin in Packing Houses Using Non-Destructive Measurement by Near Infra-Red Spectroscopy (NIRS)
Miyamoto K., Kitano Y., Yamashita S., Honda H. and Nakanishi Y. [pg. 1126]

The Effect of Storage Temperature on Development of Rind Blemish on Washington Navel Oranges
Tugwell B.L. and Chvyl W.L. [pg. 1129]

Postharvest Temperature Conditioning and Chilling Effects on Flavedo Lipid Composition of ‘Fortune’ Mandarin
Mulas M., Lafuente M.T. and Zacarias L. [pg. 1132]

Pre-Storage Vapour Heat Effects on Grapefruit (Citrus Paradisi Macf.) 'Star Ruby' Fruit Stored at Low Temperatures
Wright M.J., Kaiser C., Bard Z.J. and Wolstenholme B.N. [pg. 1136]

Economic Analysis of Robot Picking Systems for Citrus Fruit
Francesco B. and Giovanni L. [pg. 1139]

Maturity Indexing and the Management of Fruit Quality
de Vries P.J. and Moelich J. [pg. 1145]

Control of Albedo Rind Breakdown with Gibberellic Acid
Tugwell B.L., Chvyl W.L., Moulds G. and Hill J. [pg. 1147]

Modified Atmosphere Packaging for Citrus
Tugwell B.L. and Chvyl W.L. [pg. 1150]

Heat Applications as Complete or Partial Substitutes for Postharvest Fungicide Treatments of Grapefruit and Oroblanco Fruits
Rodov V., Peretz J., Agar T., D'hallewin G. and Ben-Yehoshua S. [pg. 1153]

S.E.M. Studies on Petilclluum italicum-' Star Ruby' Grapefruit Interactions as Affected by Hot Water Dipping
Dettori A., D'hallewin G., Agabbio M., Marceddu S. and Schirra M. [pg. 1158]

Effect of Washing Sequence and Heat Solutions to Degreened Hamlin Oranges on Diplodia Stem-End Rot, Fruit Colour and Phytotoxicity
Brown G.E. and Baraka M.A. [pg. 1164]

Effect of Injury and Inoculum Density on the Infection of Italian Oranges by Penicillium digitatum
di Martino Aleppo E. and Lanza G. [pg. 1171]

Commercial Use of Aspire  for the Control of Postharvest Decay of Citrus in the Packinghouse
Shachnai A., Chalutz E., Droby S., Cohen L., Weiss B., Daus A., Katz H., Bercovitz A., Binyamini Y. and Keren-Tzur M. [pg. 1174]

Behaviour of Geotrichum Candidum in Different Citrus Areas of Tucuman Province, Argentina
Torres Leal G.J. and de Ramallo N.E.V, [pg. 1178]

Postharvest Decay in Oranges and Mandarins Caused by Trichoderma Fungi
Tuset J.J., Hinarejos C., Mira J.L. and Molins A. [pg. 1182]

Control of Green Mould of Oranges and Lemons by Curing at High Temperatures
Lanza G. and di Martino Aleppo E. [pg. 1187]

Natural Content, Residual Levels and Penetration of Copper in Citrus Fruits and Products
Montti M., Gerard J., Chaulet M., Hurtado C. and Tisocco O. [pg. 1192]

Limonene: Chemical Facilitator for the Enhanced Development of Infection in the Epicarp of Citrus limon by Penicillium digitatum
Arimoto Y. [pg. 1197]

Forecasting of Maturation for Organization of Grapefruit (Citrus Paradisi Macf.) Harvesting
Betancourt M., Pardo A., Nunez F., Gonzalez E., Lapus A. and Perez M. [pg. 1200]

Harvest and Post-Harvest Handling of Citrus Fruit under Adverse Climatic Conditions
Codina T.C. and Namesny C. [pg. 1203]

Differences in Quality Attributes Between on Tree Stored, 2,4-D Treated and Cold Stored Washington Navel Oranges
Pala M., D'hallewin G., Mura D., Lovicu G., Farci M, and Dettori A, [pg. 1205]

Storage of Fortune Mandarins Following Postharvest Dips in Hot Water and a Coating with an Edible Sucrose Polyester
Schirra M.,And D'hallewin G. [pg. 1209]

Factors Affecting the Quality of Fresh Citrus Fruits Produced in the Area of Concordia (Entre Rios, Argentina)
Vazquez D.E., Garran S.M. and Ragone M.L. [pg. 1215]


Germplasm Resources and Needs

Citrus Germplasm and It's Utilization in China
Deng X.X., Guo W.W. and Zhang W.C. [pg. 1217]

Biodiversity and Conservation of Citrus and It's Relatives in Malaysia and Vicinity
Saamin S. and Ko W.W. [pg. 1222]

Occurrence, Distribution and Diversity in the Genus Citrus in the Indian Gene Centre
Rai M., Chandel K.P.S. and Gupta P.N. [pg. 1228]

An Estimation of the Annual Cost to Maintain a Citrus Germplasm Repository
Krueger R.R. [pg. 1235]


Miller J. [pg. 1241]

Citrus Rootstocks - Past and Future
Wutscher H.K. [pg. 1245]

Production and Evaluation of Citrus Somatic Hybrid Rootstocks: Progress Report
Grosser J.W., Gmitter F.G. Jr., Castle W.S. and Chandler J.L [pg. 1246]

The Use of Genetic Markers for Rootstock Breeding
Gmitter F.G. Jr. [pg. 1251]

Computerizing the Rootstock Database
Luro F. and Cottin R. [pg. 1253]

Rootstock Breeding at the University of California, Riverside
Roose M.L. [pg. 1254]

Rootstock Tolerance to Biotic Stress
Broadbent P. [pg. 1255]

Rootstocks in Spain
Forner J.B. [pg. 1258]

Preliminary Results of the Breeding Program for Rootstocks
Foguet J.L., Blanco A., Stein B. and Gonzalez J.L. [pg. 1259]

Leaf Analysis and Fertilizer Recommendations

What is the Most Profitable Use of Citrus Leaf Analysis?
Embleton T.W., Coggins Jr C.W. and Witney G.W. [pg. 1261]

Swietlik D. [pg. 1265]

Soil Testing and Leaf Analysis in Brazil -Recent Developments
Quaggio J.A., Cantarella H. and Mattos Jr D. [pg. 1269]

Ministry of Agriculture, Extension Services, Dep of Citriculture, Israel
Lavon R. and Erner Y. [pg. 1276]

Perez G.C. [pg. 1279]

Gallasch P.T. [pg. 1280]

South Africa
du Plessis S.F. and Koen T.J. [pg. 1283]

Lekchiri A. [pg. 1286]

Obreza T.A., Alva A.K., Hanlon E.A. and Rouse R.E. [pg. 1293]

Black Spot

History and Epidemiology of Citrus Black Spot in South Africa
Kotze J.M. [pg. 1296]

Management of Citrus Black Spot in Corrientes, Argentina
Canteros B.I. [pg. 1300]

Plant Growth Regulators in Citriculture

Plant Growth Regulators in Citriculture
Goren R., Goldschmidt E.E. and El-Olmani M. [pg. 1304]

Citrus Leafminer in Southern Africa

Citrus Leafminer in Southern Africa
Ware A.B. and Hatting V. [pg. 1309]



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