Japan 1981



International Citrus Congress - Tokyo, Japan 9-12 November 1981

Fourth meeting of the International Society of Citriculture



Comparison of Different Methods for Identifying Zygotic and Nucellar Seedlings in Citrus.
G. Geraci, L.A. Manzocchi, N. Tusa, G. Occorso, L., Radogna and F. De Pasquale [pg. 1]

Distinction between Hybrid and Nucellar Citrus Trees by Analysis of Their Biochemical Compounds.
J.M. Ortiz, J.L. Tadeo, J. Guerri and J.B. Forner [pg. 4]

Leaf Isozymes as Genetic Markers in Citrus.
R.K. Soost and A.M. Torres [pg. 7]

Isozymes of Citrus Leaves.
M. Hirai and I. Kozaki [pg. 10]

Peroxidase Activity during Fruit Development in the so-called "Acidic Fruits" of Citrus.
A.M. Cabrera and H. Lima [pg. 13]

Characterization with SEM of the Pollen of Some Italian Lemon Cultivars.
G. Reforgiato-Recupero and A. Starrantino [pg. 17]

Pollen infrastructure of Citrus Cultivars.
I. Kozaki and M. Hirai [pg. 19]

Studies on Pollen Morphology of Citrus Plants.
Ye Yin-min, Kong Van and Zheng Xiang-hong [pg. 23]

Gene-Controlled Meiosis in Citrus reticulata.
A. Vardi and P. Spiegel-Roy [pg. 26]

Tetraploid Frequency in Nucellar Seedlings from Single Trees of Carrizo and Troyer Citrus Hybrids.
D.J. Hutchison and H.C. Barrett [pg. 27]

Occurrence of a Spontaneous Octoploid in Apomictic Seedlings of a Tetraploid Citrus Hybrid.
H.C. Barrett and D.J. Hutchison [pg. 29]

Citrus Hybrids Obtained In Vitro from 2x Females X 4x Males.
A. Starrantino and G. Reforgiato Recupero [pg. 31]

Ploidy Levels of Seedlings Obtained from 2x X 4x Crosses in Citrus.
I. Oiyama, N. Okudai and T. Takahara [pg. 32]

Seed Development in Relation to Ploidy of Zygotic Embryo and Endosperm in Polyembryonic Citrus.
A. Wakana, M. Iwamasa and S. Uemoto [pg. 35]

Repression of Polyembryony by Gamma-rays in Polyembryonic Citrus.
F. Ikeda [pg. 39]

Role of the Primordium Cell in Nucellar Embryogenesis in Citrus.
S. Kobayashi, I. Ikeda and M. Nakatani [pg. 44]

Stigma Exudate Application for Overcoming Self-incompatibility of Hyuganatsu and Hassaku.
K. Yamashita [pg. 48]

Thirty Years Achievements in Citrus Varietal Improvement in China.
Zhang Wen-cai [pg. 51]

The 'Sunburst' Citrus Hybrid in Florida.
C.J. Hearn [pg. 55]

'Yafit' and 'Norit' - Two New Easy Peeling Mandarin Hybrids.
P. Spiegel-Roy and A. Vardi [pg. 57]

'Oroblanco,' a Triploid Pummelo-Grapefruit Hybrid.
R.K. Soost and J.W. Cameron [pg. 59]

Breeding Cold-Hardy Citrus Scion Cultivars.
H.C. Barrett [pg. 61]

Selection of Hybrids from Satsuma Crossing in Brazil.
L.C. Donadio [pg. 66]

Mutagenesis Applied for Citrus Improvement.
F. Russo, B. Donini and A. Starrantino [pg. 68]

Development of a Program for Disease-Free Citrus Budwood in Spain.
L. Navarro, J.F. Ballester, J. Juarez, J.A. Pina, J.M. Arregui and R. Bono [pg. 70]

Acid Citrus Cultuvars Related to the Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) in Japan.
T. Taninaka, N. Otoi and J. Morimoto [pg. 73]

Characterization of the Brazilian Sweet Orange Cultivars 'Pera', 'Natal' and 'Barao'.
R. Romano and L.C. Donadio [pg. 76]

Pre- and Postharvest Performance of 'Orlando' Tangelos in Cuba.
R. Casamayor, L. Bello, P. Ramirez and R. Garcia [pg. 78]

Estimates of Repeatability in Time and Space for the Main Characteristics of Tangerine Fruit and Trees.
H. Lima, A. Sigarroa and M. Torres [pg. 81]

Determination of Optimal Structure for Citrus Species and Cultivars through Economic Mathematical Modelling.
A. Nova and Ch. Gonzalez [pg. 83]

Bud Mutations in Citrus and Their Potential Commercial Value.
K. Mendel [pg. 86]

Bud Mutations in Citrus Cultivars in Texas.
R.A. Hensz [pg. 89]

Bud Variations in Citrus Cultivars in Italy.
F. Russo [pg. 91]

'Arrufatina', 'Esbal' and 'Guillermina,' Three Clementine Mandarin Mutations Recently Discovered in Spain.
R. Bono, L. Fernandez de Cordova and J. Soler [pg. 94]

Recent Citrus Mutant Selections in Japan.
M. Iwamasa and M. Nishiura [pg. 96]

Occurrence of Very Early Mutants from the Wase (Early Ripening) Satsumas.
M. Iwamasa, N. Nito, S. Yamaguchi, T. Kuriyama, T. Ehara and T. Nakamuta [pg. 99]

New Cultivars of 'Clementine' Mandarin in Morocco.
R. Devaux [pg. 101]

Citrus Rootstocks in Brazil.
O.S. Passes and A.P. da Cunha Sobrinho [pg. 102]

Present Status of Citrus Rootstocks in Spain.
J.B. Forner, J.A. Pina, M. Aparicio, J. Sala, A. Alcaide and J. Giner [pg. 106]

Effect of Budding Height on Yield and Tree Size of 'Valencia' Orange on Two Rootstocks.
W.P. Bitters, D.A. Cole and C.D. McCarty [pg. 109]

Effect of Height and Length of Reciprocal Interstock Insertion on Yield and Tree Size of 'Valencia' Oranges.
W.P. Bitters, D.A. Cole and C.D. McCarty [pg. 110]

A Review of Citrus Seed Biology and Its Relationship to Nursery Practices.
W.S. Castle [pg. 113]

Citrus Rootstock Trials in Sardinia: Preliminary Results on the Performance of Ten Rootstocks for Navel and 'Valencia' Oranges and for 'Marsh' Grapefruit.
F.G. Crescimanno, P. Deidda and A.M. Frau [pg. 119]

Behaviour of Citrus Rootstocks under Tropical Conditions.
A.P. da Cunha Sobrinho, O.S. Passes, W.S. Scares Filho and Y.S. Coelho [pg. 123]

Citrus Interstock-Scion Combinations and Topworking Procedures in the Wakayama Region of Japan.
M. Tanaka, J. Morimoto, H. Harano and K. Maesaka [pg. 127]

Effect of Rootstocks on Seasonal Changes of Mexican Limes [Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle] in Colima Mexico.
V.M. Medina-Urrutia and J. Valdez-Verdzuco [pg. 130]

Study of Rootstocks for 'Tahiti' Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Tan.): Part VII: Isoenzymatic Characterization (2).
C. Gonzalez and J.A. Gonzalez [pg. 132]

The Influence of Rootstocks on the Performance of 'Valencia' Orange under Tropical Conditions.
N. del Valle, O. Herrera and A. Rios [pg. 134]

Comparative Observations on the Root Systems of Eleven Citrus Rootstocks.
E. Tribulato, G. Continella, P. Damigella and G. Mangano [pg. 137]

Effect of the Mexican and Persian Limes on the Root System Characteristics of Three Rootstocks.
V.M. Medina-Urrutia and S. Alcalde-Bianco [pg. 140]

Influence of Rootstocks on Mexican Lime Performance in Colima, Mexico.
J. Valdez-Verduzco and V.M. Medina-Urrutia [pg. 142]

Recent Citrus Inarching Experiments in Israel.
A. Shaked, A. Cohen, M. Hamo and D. Hasdai [pg. 144]

A Study of Some Fruit Quality Indexes on Three Citrus Species Influenced by Different Rootstocks.
M. Nunez [pg. 146]

The Effect of Budding Heights on Tree Size of Citrus Trees Affected by Exocortis Viroid.
C.S. Moreira, O. Rodriguez, J. Pompeu, Jr., S.J. Teofilo and A.A. Salibe [pg. 148]

Protoplast Derived Plants from Different Citrus Species and Cultivars.
A. Vardi [pg. 149]

Plantlet Formation from Anthers of Citrus aurantium L.
T. Hidaka, Y. Yamada and T. Shichijo [pg. 153]

Effect of Organic Acids, Phenylalanine, and Tyrosine on Growth of Citrus Tissue Cultures.
Y. Erner and O. Reuveni [pg. 155]

Influence of Light and Nutritive Medium on Citrus Tissue Cultures.
O. Mas and A. Alfonso [pg. 158]

Regeneration of Buds and Roots from Several Citrus Tissues.
D.W. Burger and W.P. Hackett [pg. 161]


Citrus Tree Density and Pruning Practices for the 21st Century.
P.R. Cary [pg. 165]

Tree Configuration and Pruning of Satsuma Mandarin in Japan.
I. Iwagaki [pg. 169]

Citrus Pruning in Spain.
S. Zaragoza and E. Alonso [pg. 172]

Three Years of Mechanical Pruning of Citrus in Italy.
G. Raciti, P. Spina, A. Scuderi and F. Intrigliolo [pg. 175]

Trials of Mechanical Pruning Machines in Italian Citriculture.
G. Blandini, F. Peirone and S. Sisinna [pg. 180]

Tree Density and Age as Related to Fruit Yield per Field Area in the Satsuma Mandarin - Estimation for an Optimum Leaf Area Index on Field Basis. -
S. Hirano, S. Morioka and S. Tachibana [pg. 184]

Tree Spacing Effects on Productivity of High Density Dwarf Orange Trees.
R.J. Hutton and B.R. Cullis [pg. 186]

Effects of Mechanical Pruning on Yield of Citrus Trees.
M. Borrel and A. Diaz [pg. 190]

Tree Spacing of 'Valencia Late' Orange in Jaguey Grande, Cuba.
R. Rodriguez, N. Arias, R. Torres and W. Arango [pg. 194]

Recent Developments in Girdling of Citrus Trees.
A.Cohen [pg. 196]

Comparative Study of Ripening in Several Clementine Mandarin Types.
J.L. Tadeo, J.M. Ortiz and A. Estelles [pg. 200]

Creasing: Formulating a Hypothesis.
L.C. Holtzhausen [pg. 201]

Occurrence of Sun Scald in Early Satsuma Mandarin and Its Control.
M. Sadamatsu [pg. 205]

Effects of Hail Protection Nets on 'Washington' Navel Orange.
F. Calabrese, A. De Michele and L. Colajanni [pg. 207]

Studies on Fruit-Bearing Branches of Satsuma Mandarins.
T. Ehara, T. Nogata and T. Nakamuta [pg. 209]

The Influence of Exogenous Growth Regulators on Rind Quality and Internal Quality of Citrus Fruits.
C.W. Coggins, Jr [pg. 214]

The Regulation of Fruit Cropping in Mandarins through the Use of Growth Regulators.
M. Agusti, V. Almela and J.L. Guardiola [pg. 216]

The Effect of Preharvest Foliar Sprays of 2,4-D and Gibberellic Acid on the Postharvest Storage Characteristics of 'Ruby Red' Grapefruit.
J.E. Fucik [pg. 221]

Control of Creasing in Navels with Gibberellic Acid.
I.M. Gilfillan, J.A. Stevenson, E.A. Holmden and J.P. Wahl [pg. 224]

Effects of Pre- and Postharvest Applications of Ethylene-Releasing Agents and Auxins, and Individual Seal-Packaging with High-Density Polyethylene Film on Coloration of Citrus Fruit and Its Quality.
S. Ben-Yehoshua and B. Shapiro [pg. 226]

Growth Regulators for Promotion of On-Tree Storage of Grapefruit and HDP Storage of Harvested Fruit.
P.T. Gallasch [pg. 229]

Effects of Ethylchlozate (ethyl 5-chloro-lH-3-indazolylacetate) on Fruit Quality of Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.).
S. Tominaga and H. Daito [pg. 233]

Use of Growth Regulators to Control Rind Puffing of Satsuma Mandarin Fruit.
K. Kawase, K.Suzuki and K. Hirose [pg. 237]

Alternate Bearing in Citrus and Ways of Control.
S.P. Monselise, E.E. Goldschmidt and A. Golomb [pg. 239]

Flower Initiation and Development in Citrus.
J.L. Guardiola [pg. 242]

Control of Flowering of Satsuma Mandarins (Citrus unshiu Marc.) with Gibberellin.
S. Iwahori and J.T. Oohata [pg. 247]

Fruit Setting of Citrus.
A.H. Krezdorn [pg. 249]

Relationship Between Endogenous Hormonal Content and Fruit Set in Citrus Varieties of the Navel Group.
J. Furio, F. Calvo, J.L. Tadeo and E. Primo Millo [pg. 253]

Development of Chemical Thinners for Commercial Use for Satsuma Mandarin in Japan.
K. Hirose [pg. 256]

Physiological Activity of Ethychlozate — Fruit Thinning and Maturity Accelerating Effects for Citrus.
Y. Kamuro and K. Hirai [pg. 260]

Fruit Thinning of Florida Mandarins Using Plant Growth Regulators.
T.A. Wheaton [pg. 263]

Orange Drop under Tropical Conditions and Measures of Control.
C.G. Borroto, V.M. Lopez, A. Gonzalez and L. Pyla [pg. 268]

Effect of Ethyl 5-chloro-lH-3-indazolylacetate on Fruit Thinning of Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch).
Y. Noma [pg. 271]

Abscission of Satsuma (Citrus unshiu Marc.) Fruit Caused by Application of Ethychlozate (ethyl 5-chloro-lH-3-indazolylacetate).
M. Shiraishi [pg. 275]

Growth Regulators Facilitate Harvesting of Oranges.
W.C. Wilson, G.E. Coppock and J.A. Attaway [pg. 278]

Development of a Mechanical Harvesting System for Citrus Fruit.
R.J. Hutton and W.J. Lill [pg. 281]

Combination of Abscission-Inducing Chemicals and Mechanical Harvesting on 'Valencia Late' Oranges in Cuba.
M.C. Perez, A. Martinez and I. Quintero [pg. 285]

Incidence of Integrated Harvesting on Fruit Damage of Citrus Orchards Mechanically Pruned.
G. Raciti, F. Intrigliolo and A. Scuderi [pg. 288]

Seasonal Endurance of Ripe Oranges and Grapefruit to Impacts of Free Drop upon Several Mattresses.
A. Golomb, A. Shteif and I. Leviticus [pg. 289]

Theoretical Study on Rates of Vibration to Detach Grapefruit.
A. Martinez Rodriguez and G. Mendez Barries [pg. 294]

Determination of the Parameters for Orange Harvesting by Mechanical Shaking.
A. Martinez [pg. 296]

Fluorine Accumulation in and Toxicity to Citrus under Field Conditions.
R.F. Brewer and C.D. Leonard [pg. 301]

Effect of Ethylene on Fruit Drop, Growth, Photosynthesis, Diffusive Resistance and Abscisic Acid of Citrus Trees.
J. Matsushima and K. Yonemori [pg. 304]

Comparative Studies on Mandarin, Gladiolus, Cedar, Pine and Taro as Plant Indicators in Fluoride Pollution.
Y. Suketa, T. Yamamoto and F. Yamazoe [pg. 307]

Influence of Sulfur Dioxide on the Growth and the Sulfur Content of Satsuma Mandarin in Wakayama Prefecture.
H. Ueno, M. Kadota, H. Sugai and H. Hijikata [pg. 311]

A Weather Satellite System for Observing, Forecasting and Displaying Cold Temperatures for Citrus Producing Area.
J.F. Gerber and J.D. Martsolf [pg. 313]

Relationships between Winter Hardening Temperatures and Spring Bud Break in Citrus and Related Species.
R.H. Young [pg. 318]

Citrus Culture in the High Altitude American Tropics.
S.E. Camacho-B. [pg. 321]

A Study on the Protected Cultivation of Citrus Trees and Ecology of Their Growth in Japan.
T. Taniguchi [pg. 325]

Growing Navel Oranges by Covering with Vinyl Film Roof.
M. Ueda, N. Noguchi and K. Mishima [pg. 328]

Climatic Effects on 'Valencia' Oranges in Eastern Cuba.
C.D. Sanchez Garcia and M.A. Fernandez [pg. 331]


Effect of Greasy Spot on 'Valencia' Oranges in Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
J.P. Martinez-Soriano, R. Gonzalez-Garza and J.A. Sanchez-Salas [pg. 335]

Diagnosis of Citrus Greasy Spot based on Experiences with this Disease in Florida.
J.O. Whiteside [pg. 336]

Resistance of Citrus to Scab.
H. Ieki [pg. 340]

Citrus Black Spot Control in Taiwan.
Y.P. Tsai [pg. 344]

Control of Phytophthora Gummosis in Citrus with Foliar Sprays of Fosetyl Al, a New Systemic Fungicide.
E.Y. Laville and A.J. Chalandon [pg. 346]

Phytophthora Foot Rot Control with the Systemic Fungicides Metalaxyl and Fosetyl Aluminum.
R.M. Davis [pg. 349]

Armillaria Root Rot of Citrus in New South Wales, Australia.
P. Broadbent [pg. 351]

Research on the Epidemiology of "Mal Secco" Disease of Citrus: Preliminary Results on the Role of Leaf Infection.
V. Somma, G. Scarito and C. Laviola [pg. 353]

Histology and Cytology of Citrus Mal Secco Diseased Tissues Induced by Phoma tracheiphila.
G. Perrotta, G. Magnano di San Lio and L. Lo Giudice [pg. 354]

The Management of Fungal and Bacterial Diseases of Citrus in Italy.
M. Salerno and G. Cutuli [pg. 360]

Citrus Knots in Cuba.
N. del Valle, H. Grille, A. Gonzalez, O. Mas and A. Rios [pg. 362]

Disease Occurence in a Citrus Rootstock and Drainage Experiment (SWAP) in Florida.
M. Cohen, D.V. Calvert and R.R. Pelosi [pg. 366]

Wavelength Ratios Selected from First Derivatives of Spectral Reflectance Curves of Citrus Trees under Various Levels of Stress.
G.J. Edwards, C.H. Blazquez, R.H. Young and T. Davis, Jr [pg. 368]

Defense Mechanisms of Citrus Against Melanose and Stem-End Rot.
Y. Homma.Y. Arimoto and T. Misato [pg. 370]

The Significance of the Callus Formation on Citrus.
Y. Arimoto, Y. Homma and T. Misato [pg. 374]

Tylenchulus semipenetrans Population in Citrus Soils in the Provinces of Murcia and Alicante, in Relation to the Type, Cultivar and Age of Trees.
A. Ortuno, A. Hernansaez, J.M. Abrisqueta and J. Gomez [pg. 379]

SEM Observation on the Nature of Resistance of Wampi and Trifoliate Orange to Nematode Infection.
Doris C.N. Chang [pg. 380]

Present Status of Citrus Nematode Control in the Mediterranean Area.
V. Lo Guidice [pg. 384]

Alternatives to DBCP for Citrus Nematode Control.
S.D. Van Gundy, S. Garabedian and E.L. Nigh [pg. 387]

Citrus Bacterial Canker Disease: An Overview.
E.L. Civerolo [pg. 390]

Recent Studies on the Behavior of the Causal Bacterium of the Citrus Canker.
S. Serizawa [pg. 395]

ØXW116, A Temperate Phage for Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri.
W.C. Wu, B.C. Yang and M.L. Huang [pg. 397]

A New In Vitro Inoculation Method for Citrus Canker Diagnosis.
M.M. Lopez and L. Navarro [pg. 399]

Resistance of Citrus Plants to Bacterial Canker Disease: A Review.
M. Koizumi [pg. 402]

Resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri (Hasse) Dowson in Oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck].
H.M. Zubrzycki and A. Diamante de Zubrzycki [pg. 405]

The Program for Control and Prevention of Citrus Bacterial Canker Disease (Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri) in Uruguay.
G. Arocena and F. Favaro [pg. 409]

Timing of Sprays to Control of Cancrosis of Grapefruit in Argentina.
R.E. Stall, J.W. Miller, G.M. Marco and B.I.C. Canteros de Echenique [pg. 414]

Citrus Canker (Xanthomonas campestris pv.citri): An Analytical Bibliography.
V. Rossetti, E. Feichtenberger and M.L. Silveira [pg. 418]

A Review on Tristeza, An Ongoing Threat to Citriculture.
M. Bar-Joseph, C.N. Roistacher, S.M. Garnsey and D.J. Gumpf. [pg. 419]

A Tristeza Virus Strain Causing Dwarf of Pomelo and Grapefruit.
Hong-Ji Su [pg. 423]

Citrus Virus Diseases in Italy: Past, Present and a Look to the Future.
A.Catara,G. Cartia and M. Davino [pg. 426]

Attempts to Separate Components of the Tatterleaf Citrange Stunt Complex.
C.N. Roistacher [pg. 430]

Spread of the Exocortis Viroid During 14 Years in a Lemon Orchard in Southern California.
E.C. Calavan, L.G. Weathers, M.K. Harjung and R.L. Blue [pg. 433]

Effect of Citrus Exocortis Viroid (CEV) on Root and Callus Formation by Stem Tissue of Etrog Citron (Citrus medica L.) Cultured In Vitro.
L. Navarro
 [pg. 437]

The Effect of Stem-Pitting on Yield of 'Washington' Navel Orange.
A. Sasaki [pg. 439]

A Nation-Wide Campaign for Certification of Early Satsuma 'Miyamoto Wase' for Citrus Mosaic by ELISA.
S. Kuhara, M. Koizumi, A. Yamaguchi and S. Yamada [pg. 441]

Use of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for Detection of Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) in Different Aphid Species.
M. Cambra, A. Hermoso de Mendoza, P. Moreno and L. Navarro [pg. 444]

Applications of Serological Indexing to Develop Control Strategies for Citrus Tristeza Virus.
S.M. Garnsey, M. Bar-Joseph and R.F. Lee [pg. 448]

Citrus Shoot-tip Grafting In Vitro (STG) and Its Applications: A Review.
L. Navarro [pg. 452]

Progress in the Control of Citrus Stubborn Disease.
D.J. Gumpf, G.N. Oldfield and R.K. Yokomi [pg. 457]

Yolk Media for Cultivation of Spiroplasmas.
Hong-Ji Su and Chan-Pin Lin [pg. 458]

Citrus Diseases in India and Role of Greening in Development of Citrus Dieback.
S.P. Raychaudhuri [pg. 461]

Field Performance of Citrus Varieties and Cultivars Grown under Control Measures Adopted against Leaf Mottling (Greening) Disease in the Philippines.
C.I. Gonzales and R.C. Vinas [pg. 463]

The Current Citrus Disease Situation in Thailand with Emphasis on Citrus Greening.
K. Bhavakul, M. Promintara, S. Intavimolsri, S. Vichitrananda and C. Kratureuk [pg. 464]

Citrus Yellow Shoot Disease (Huanglongbing) in China -A Review.
Zhao Xue-yuan [pg. 466]

Insect, Dodder and Seed Transmissions of Citrus Vein Phloem Degeneration (CVPD).
Tirtawidjaja Soelaeman [pg. 469]

Integrated Approach to Control Citrus Greening Disease in India.
T.K. Nariani [pg. 471]

Mineral Composition of Healthy and Affected Plants by Citrus Blight.
J.E. Cueto, O. Hernandez, B. Pedrera and H. Lima [pg. 472]

A Statistical Method to Determine the Distribution and Expansion of Blight.
J.L. Llanos, H. Lima and J.O. Chavez [pg. 474]

Peroxidase in Healthy Grapefruit Trees and those Affected by Blight.
J.L. Llanos and H. Lima [pg. 476]

Declinio of Citrus Trees in Brazil. A Review.
V. Rossetti [pg. 478]


Weeds Affect Citrus Growth, Physiology, Yield, Fruit Quality.
L.S. Jordan [pg. 481]

Approaches to Weed Management in Citrus from the Aspect of Weed Science.
M. Ito, K. Ito and K. Ueki [pg. 483]

Present Status of Citrus Weed Control in Italy.
V. Lo Giudice [pg. 485]

Evaluation of Glyphosate for Weed Control in Citrus Orchards of Spain.
D.G. De Barreda and A. Del Busto [pg. 487]

Weeds in Citrus Orchards and Their Control in Japan.
K. Suzuki [pg. 489]

Herbicide Applications in Citrus through Drip Irrigation Systems.
F. Del Amor, A. Leon, A. Torrecillas, and A. Ortuno [pg. 493]

Chemical Weed Control and Its Influence on the Production of 'Valencia Late' Oranges (Citrus sinensis L.).
R. Casamayor, R. Garcia and N. Arias [pg. 496]

Effects of Root Environmental Conditions on Stomatal Behavior and Tanslocation of Photosynthates.
K. Kadoya, F. Mizutani, A. Hino and T. Ishii [pg. 498]

Water Relations of Citrus in Climates with Different Evaporative Demands.
Y. Levy and J.P. Syvertsen [pg. 501]

Moisture Stress - A Potent Factor for Affecting Vegetative Growth and Tree Size in Citrus.
A. Goell, A. Golomb, D. Kalmar, A. Mantell and Sh. Sharon [pg. 503]

Drip Irrigation Trials on Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in Sicily.
G. Fatta Del Bosco, G. Barbera and G. Occorso [pg. 506]

A Comparison of Drip and Sprinkler Irrigation in Citrus Orchards.
Eliezer Yagev and Itzhak Horesh [pg. 508]

Review of Citrus Irrigation in Australia.
M.B. Spurling [pg. 511]

Combining Irrigation Regimes with Girdling Techniques in Citrus Trees (A New Experimental Mode).
A. Goell and A. Cohen [pg. 514]

Adapting the Italian Verdelli Process to Persian Lime Production in California.
G.E. Goodall and K.G. Silveira [pg. 518]

Researches on the "Forzatura" of Lemon Trees.
F. Calabrese and L. Di Marco [pg. 520]

Some Aspects on Water Stress Physiology on Forced Lemon (Citrus limon Burm.) Trees.
G. Barbera. G. Fatta Del Bosco, B. Lo Cascio and G. Occorso [pg. 522]

The Effect of Soil Moisture on the Fruit Quality of Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.).
T. Kuriyama, M. Shimoosako, M. Yoshida and S. Shiraishi [pg. 524]

Soil Management Factors Affecting Growth and Yield of Citrus Trees.
P.R. Cary [pg. 527]

Aptitude for Citriculture of Soils on Keuper Sediments in the Region of Murcia (Spain).
J.A. Sanchez and F.A. Artes [pg. 530]

Deep Tillage, Liming and Drainage Affects Citrus Growth and Yields.
D. V. Calvert, M. Cohen, L.H. Allen, Jr. and F.G. Martin [pg. 534]

Search for Efficient Phosphorus Fertilization.
E. Yuda, H. Kurooka and S. Nakagawa [pg. 537]

Bioelements Physiological Evolutions During the Growth and Development of Shoots and Leaves of Lemon Trees Cultivated in Saline Soils.
Ma. Parra and T. Parra [pg. 540]

Influence of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium and Timing of Application on Yield of Mexican Lime [Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swingle].
J. Orozco-Romero and J.L. Sepulveda-Torres [pg. 542]

Behavior of Surf ace-Applied Cations in the Soil of a Satsuma Mandarin Orchard.
M. Wada, Y. Shimogoori and H. Hatano, [pg. 544]

On the Diagnosis of Nutrient Condition and the Application of Fertilizer for Citrus Trees in Japan.
N. Okada [pg. 548]

A Molybdenum Deficiency in Citrus in Corsica Increased by Sulfate Applications.
P.J. Cassin, A.M. Blondel-Triboi, J. Marchal, C. Juste, P. Favreau, P. Lossois, X. Perrier and P. Brun [pg. 551]

Response of Mexican Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle on Citrus macrophylla Rootstock) to Planting Distances, Fertilizer Rates and Fertilizer Application Forms in Tecoman, Colima, Mexico, Progress Report.
F. Velasco-Nunez and H.M. Sanchez Anguiano [pg. 554]

Nutritional Problems of Satsuma Mandarin in a Plastic House.
H. Inoue and Y. Harada [pg. 556]

Influence of Citrus Rootstocks on Leaf Inorganic Nutrients and Fruit Quality of Ponkan Trees.
N.T. Fan [pg. 559]

The Influence of Morphological and Nutritional Characteristics on Citrus Production as Part of the Study made at the Ceiba Del Agua Enterprise.
M. Alvarez and A. Correa [pg. 561]

Effect of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on Yield, Fruit Quality and Nutritional Status of 'Valencia Late' Orange.
J. Hernandez [pg. 564]

Proteins and Amino Acids Changes in Citrus Organs During the Fruiting Period.
F. Culianez, B. Martin, J. Guerri, J.L. Tadeo and E. Primo Millo [pg. 566]

Nitrogen Fertilization Programs in Satsuma Mandarin Groves in Japan.
T. Iwakiri and M. Nakahara [pg. 571]

Dynamics of 15N-Labelled Nitrogen Nutrients in 'Valencia' Orange Trees.
F. Legaz, E. Primo Millo, E. Primo Yufera and C. Gil [pg. 575]

Evaluation of a Commercial Blue-Green Algae Inoculant as Fertilizer on Citrus.
F. Pomares, F. Tarazona, M. Estela and B. Martin [pg. 583]

The Effect of Various Soil Moisture Regimes and Fertilizer Levels on Citrus Yield Response under Partial Wetting of the Root Zone.
H. Bielorai, S. Dasberg, Y. Erner and M. Brum [pg. 585]

Influence of the Cultivar and the Irrigation Systems on the Boron Leaf Levels in Lemon Trees.
A. Torrecillas, A. Leon, F. del Amor, Ma. R. Monllor and S. Llorente [pg. 589]

Influence of Irrigation and Fertilization on Productivity of the 'Navelate' Sweet Orange.
F. Legaz, R. Ibanez, D.G. de Barreda and E. Primo Millo [pg. 591]

Interactions Between Water Amounts and Fertilizer Applied Through a Drip Irrigation System in Clementine and Satsuma Mandarins.
F. Legaz D.G. de Barreda, S. Zaragoza and E. Primo Millo [pg. 595]

A Study of Leaf Analysis of Citrus in Cuba.
J. Hernandez Borroto [pg. 598]


Fundamental Consideration and Current Development in the Production and Use of Petroleum Oils.
L.A. Riehl [pg. 601]

The Role of Petroleum Oil Sprays in Pest Management Programs on Citrus in Australia.
G.O. Furness [pg. 607]

Role of Petroleum Oil Sprays in an Integrated Pest Management System of Citrus Crops in Japan.
N. Ohkubo [pg. 611]

Low Volume Oil Sprays to Control the Soft Scale, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, in Citrus Trees in Israel.
I. Neubauer [pg. 614]

The Current Status of the Biological Control of Red Scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Mask.) on Citrus in South Africa.
E.C.G. Bedford and J.H. Grobler [pg. 616]

Integrated Control of Citrus Pests in Italy.
S. Barbagallo [pg. 620]

Current Status of Citrus Pests in Greece.
L.C. Argyriou and P.A. Mourikis [pg. 623]

Evaluation of Parasitoids of Latent Pests with a Sticky Suction Trap.
K. Takagi [pg. 627]

Integrated Pest Management in California Citrus.
R.F. Luck [pg. 630]

Fundamental Studies on Integrated Pest Control.
K. Nohara [pg. 635]

Biological Control of Arrowhead Scale, Unaspis yanonensis (Kuwana), in the Implementation of IPM Programs of Citrus Orchards in Japan.
M. Tanaka [pg. 636]

A Study on the Biology and Control of the Arrowhead Scale (Unaspis yanonensis Kuwana).
Huang Lianglu, Wang Daiwu, Zhang Quanbing and Zhu Weisheng [pg. 640]

Biological Control of Citrus Red Mite, Panonychus Citri (McG.), in Guangdong Province.
Huang Ming-Dau, Mai Siu-Wui, Li Shu-xin and Situ Jin. [pg. 643]

Predatory Mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in Cuba's Citrus.
N. Rodriguez, M.E. Farinas, R. Sibat and C. Moreno [pg. 646]

Structural Damage to Citrus Leaves from Spider Mite Feeding.
L.G. Albrigo, C.C. Childers and J.P. Syvertsen [pg. 649]

Simulation Model for the Forecasting of Occurrence of Citrus Red Mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor) in Citrus Orchards.
K. Furuhashi, M. Nishino, Y. Muramatsu and M. Shiyomi [pg. 653]

Life Cycle of the Pink Citrus Rust Mite, Aculops pelekassi (Keifer), in Japan.
M.Seki [pg. 656]

Population Dynamics of the Citrus Rust Mite (Phyllocoptruta oleivora Ashmead) and its Relation to the Phenology of Orange Trees (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Valencia Late) in Cuba.
J. Mora Morin and H. Martinez [pg. 658]

Control of Citrus Red Mite (Panonychus citri) with Fenpropathrin.
Y. Fujita, K. Kasamatsu, A. Fujiwara and K. Matsumoto [pg. 661]

The Fitness of Resistant Populations of Citrus Red Mite to Acaricides in Japan.
K. Inoue [pg. 663]

UC 55248: A New Fumigant Miticide for Use in Citrus.
G.L. Rotramel and D.N. Sinodis [pg. 666]

First Results of the Epizootiological Study of Pachnaeus litus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).
M. Monies, E. Arteaga and R. Broche [pg. 667]

Control of the Citrus Root Weevil with the Nematode, Neoaplectana P2M in Citrus Nurseries.
M. Monies, E. Arteaga and R. Broche [pg. 670]

Suppression of Citrus Rust Mite & Citrus Nematode on Texas Grapefruit with Aldicarb.
J.V. French and L.W. Timmer [pg. 672]

Influence of Pesticides on Non-target Citrus Pests in California's Central Valley.
H.S. Elmer [pg. 675]

Bionomics and Pest Status of the Citrus Thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).
L.K. Tanigoshi [pg. 677]

Monitoring Insect Pest Populations by Trapping in California Citrus Orchards.
D.S. Moreno and C.E. Kennett [pg. 684]

Bionomics of the Japanese Citrus Flower-Bud Midge, Contarinia okadai (Miyoshi).
T. Kato [pg. 690]

Life Cycles and Population Fluctuations of Aphids on Citrus.
S. Komazaki [pg. 692]

Prediction of Infestation by and Control of the California Red Scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell), through Use of Its Pheromone.
M. Sternlicht, I. Bar Zacayi, Y. Szivos and E. Dunkelblum [pg. 695]

Prediction of the Occurrence of the Arrowhead Scale, Unaspis yanonensis (Kuwana).
R. Korenaga and Y. Sakagami [pg. 700]


Effects of Climatic Districts, Orchard Treatments and Seal Packaging on Citrus Fruit Quality and Storage Ability.
S.P. Monselise [pg. 705]

Australian Experience with Citrus Fruits Wrapped in High Density Polyethylene Film.
B.L. Tugwell and K. Gillespie [pg. 710]

Shipment and Storage of Florida Grapefruit Using Unipack Film Barriers.
L.G. Albrigo, P.W. Hale, M.A. Ismail and T.T. Hatton, Jr [pg. 714]

Mode of Action of Individual Seal-Packaging in High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Film in Delaying Deterioration of Lemons and Bell Pepper Fruits.
S. Ben-Yehoshua, B. Shapiro, and Z. Even-Chen [pg. 718]

Utilization of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Film for Individual Seal Packaging of Citrus Fruit.
J.M. Martines-Javega, M. Jimenez-Cuesta and J. Cuquerella [pg. 722]

“Unipack”: Individually Wrapped Storage of Citrus Fruits.
K. Kawada, W.F. Wardowski, W. Grierson, L.G. Albrigo and P.W. Hale [pg. 725]

Effect of Postharvest Application of 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, GA, CCC and Alar on the Keeping Quality of 'Valencia' Oranges.
S.M. El-Nabawy, A.M. El-Hammady, M.M. El-Hammady, N.S. Marei, and W.H. Naeim [pg. 725-1]

Temperature Management and Carbon Dioxide Treatments that Reduce Chilling Injury in Grapefruit Stored at Low Temperatures.
T.T. Hatton, P.L. Davis, R.H. Cubbedge, and K.A. Munroe [pg. 728]

Physiological Behaviour of 'Marsh Seedless' Grapefruit During Short and Long Term Cold Storage.
R.M. Salcines [pg. 731]

Some Physiological Effects of Different Wax Treatments on Spanish Citrus Fruit During Cold Storage.
J. Cuquerella, J.M. Martinez-Javega and M. Jimenez-Cuesta [pg. 734]

Response of Lemons to Various Harvesting and Postharvest Treatments.
T. Castro-Lopez, I. Izquierdo, and L. Perez [pg. 737]

Total Phenol Content and Polyphenoloxidase Activity in 'Valencia' Orange Flavedo During Storage.
M.C. Santana, B. Slutzky and A. Alonso [pg. 740]

Structure and Ultrastructure of 'Persian' Lime (Citrus aurantifolia) Rind Tissue at Two Temperatures.
J. Rodriguez, B. Slutzky, O. Ancheta, A. Ruiz and M.E. Ramos [pg. 742]

Methods for Inducing Stylar-end Breakdown in Persian Limes.
T. Castro-Lopez [pg. 745]

Methods of Degreening Satsuma Mandarin.
E. Cohen [pg. 748]

Determination of a Color Index for Citrus Fruit Degreening.
M. Jimenez-Cuesta, J. Cuquerella and J.M. Martinez-Javega [pg. 750]

Preferable Pretreatment and Storage Conditions for Iyo Tangor.
E. Beppu, Z. Ishida and A. Oowada [pg. 753]

Studies on the Gas Metabolism of Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) Fruit During Storage.
M. Manago [pg. 756]

Studies on the Shelf-Life Extension of Citrus Fruits.
W.A. Farooqi, M. Ahamad, S.A. Khanum and T.T. Hatton [pg. 760]

Degreening and Color Problems of Cuban 'Valencia' Oranges.
Ma. de los A. Torres and F. Pividal [pg. 761]

Physiological Disorders of Citrus Fruits.
W. Grierson [pg. 764]

Physiological Disorders in the Storage of Lemon Fruits.
F. Artes Calero, Ma. C. Guillen, and A. Escriche [pg. 768]

The Different Responses of Several Citrus Fruit Cultivars to Low Temperatures.
E. Chalutz, J. Waks and Mina Schiffmann-Nadel [pg. 773]

Kohansho: A Physiological Disorder of the Rind of Citrus Fruits During Storage in Japan.
Y. Hasegawa and Y. Iba [pg. 774]

Physiological Disorders of Citrus Fruils in Japan.
T. Murata [pg. 776]

Chilling Injury Related to Mineral Composition of Grapefruit and Limes During Cold Storage.
B. Slutzky, A. Gonzalez-Abreu and I. Berdam [pg. 779]

The Evolution of Two Populations of Penicillinm italicum and P. digitatum Under Influence of the Two Fungicides Benomyl and Imazalil.
E.Y. Laville [pg. 783]

Activity of Imidazole Fungicides to Control Postharvest Citrus Decay.
J.J. Tuset, J. Piquer, J. Garcia, J.M. Martinez and M. Roca [pg. 784]

Significance of Fungicide Resistance for Packinghouse Management in Arizona and California.
A.J. Dawson [pg. 787]

Tolerance of Citrus Pathogens to Current Packinghouse Treatment.
H.J. Kaplan, B.A. Dave and J.F. Petrie [pg. 788]

Alternaria Rot of Citrus Fruit.
M. Schiffmann-Nadel, J. Waks, Y. Gutter and E. Chalutz [pg. 791]

Postharvest Control of Phytophthora citrophthora with metalaxyl, and its Relation to Other Fungi Pathogenic to Citrus Fruit.
E. Cohen [pg. 793]

Research on Phytophthora Rots of Oranges in Greece.
A. Chitzanidis and D. Lascaris [pg. 796]

Eradication of Penicillium on Citrus Fruits by Electron Radiation.
R. Barkai-Golan and R. Padova [pg. 799]

Postharvest Decay of Citrus Fruit in Cuba.
O. Otero, F. Guerra and C.B. Moya [pg. 801]

Investigations on New Postharvest Fungicides for Citrus Fruits in California.
J.W. Eckert, B.F. Bretschneider and M. Ratnayake [pg. 804]

Investigations on New Postharvest Fungicides: Israel.
Y. Gutter [pg. 810]

Latest Developments in the Control of Postharvest Decay of Citrus Fruit in South Africa.
P. du T. Pelser and J.M. la Grange [pg. 812]

Investigations with Experimental Citrus Postharvest Fungicides in Florida.
G.E. Brown [pg. 815]

Guazatine for Postharvest Mold Control of Citrus Fruits.
B.L. Tugwell, K. Gillespie and T. Glenn [pg. 818]

Potassium Sorbate in Combination with Benzimidazoles Reduces Resistant Penicillium digitatum Decay in Citrus.
P.M. Nelson, R.W. Wheeler and P.D. McDonald [pg. 820]

The Control of Citrus Storage Disease by Sodium Bicarbonate Formulation.
Y. Homma, Y. Arimoto and T. Misato [pg. 823]

Electronic Sorting and Automated Packaging for Fresh Citrus Fruit.
M. Johnson [pg. 826]

Factors Causing Deterioration in the Quality of Satsuma Mandarins During the Sorting and Packing Processes, with Some Suggestions to improve the Process.
S. Yamashita and Y. Kitano [pg. 827]

Recent Studies on Development in Automated Citrus Packinghouse Facility in Japan.
M. Iwamoto.and Y. Chuma [pg. 831]

Treatment and Recycling of Wastewater in a Florida Citrus Packinghouse.
M.A. Ismail [pg. 835]

Florida Citrus Postharvest Extension Programs.
W.F. Wardowski and M.A. Ismail [pg. 837]

Reduction of Ethylene Dibromide Residue in Commercial Loads of Grapefruit by Fumigation in a Modified Cattle Trailer or Use of a Trailer Evacuation System.
M.A. Ismail, W.M. Miller and J.O. Craig [pg. 840]

Efforts Within the United States to Standardize the Sizes of Packages used for Transporting Fresh Produce.
M.T. Turczyn and P. Hale [pg. 843]

Marketing of Citrus in Plastic Returnable Crates.
B.L. Tugwell [pg. 845]

The Problems of Production, Storage and Marketing of Citrus in Nigeria.
C.A. Amih [pg. 847]

Marketing of Citrus Fruits in Japan.
H. Kitagawa [pg. 849]

Proposal of a Method for Testing the Quality of Citrus in Large Lots.
L. Bosque and L. Victorero [pg. 852]


Energy Savings from Storing a High Degree Brix Orange Juice Concentrate at Elevated Temperatues in an Inert Atmosphere.
P.G. Crandall, C.S. Chen and T.R. Graumlich [pg. 855]

Tendency of Production and Consumption of Citrus Fruit Juices in Japan, Especially Production of Fruit Drinks with Juice Sacs.
H. Maeda and Y. Ifuku [pg. 859]

Processing of Limes in Mexico.
L. Haro-Guzman and R. Hauchbaum [pg. 862]

Quality Assessment of Canned Satsuma Mandarin.
M. Mori, K.Suzuki and H. Masuda [pg. 863]

Some New Citrus Products Investigations in Florida.
M.D. Maraulja, E.L. Moore and J.A. Attaway [pg. 867]

Freeze Drying and Foam Mat Drying of Cuban Orange Juice.
T. Moreira, L. Cabrera and R.M. Salcines [pg. 870]

Less Desirable Flavor Components in Processed Citrus Products.
R.L. Rouseff, S. Nagy and J.A. Attaway [pg. 872]

Relationships Between Bitterness of Juice and Fruit Maturities of Wase Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. var. Praecox Tanaka).
Y. Izumi, C. Araki and A. Goto [pg. 877]

Ethylene Production by Citrus Fruit Tissues.
H. Hyodo [pg. 880]

Activities of Lipoxygenase and Hydroperoxide Cleavage Enzyme of Flavedo Tissues of Citrus medioglobosa as Affected by Gibberellin and High Temperature Treatments.
T. Ichii. T. Nakanishi and K. Hamada [pg. 882]

New Adsorptive Processes for Improving the Acceptability of Processed Grapefruit Juice.
B.V. Chandler and R.L. Johnson [pg. 885]

Evolution of Technology of Citrus Products in Italy.
G. Safina [pg. 888]

Peel of Satsuma Mandarin as Food Materials.
M. Iyama, A. Inoue, I. Oshita and T- Nakashio [pg. 890]

Production of Purified Citrus Molasses as Raw Material for Amino Acids Fermentation.
R. Tsugawa, A- Nakamura, T. Takeyama, S. Ueno, T. Soejima, and T. Minematsu [pg. 893]

Recent Developments in Citrus Processing, Products and Specialty Products.
R.E. Berry [pg. 896]

Recent Studies on Delayed Bitterness in Citrus Juices.
B.V. Chandler and G.L. Robertson [pg. 899]

Seasonal Changes of Limonoids in the Component Parts of Several Citrus Fruits.
F. Hashinaga and S. Itoo [pg. 901]

B-Vitamins in Citrus Juices.
S.V. Ting and R.L. Rouseff [pg. 905]

Aroma Development in Citrus Iyo by Pretreatment and Storage.
A. Kobayashi, M. Matsumoto, K. Uchida, and T. Yamanishi [pg. 909]

Some Important Flavor Compounds in Mandarin, Grapefruit and Orange Juices and Peel Essential Oils.
P.E. Shaw, C.W. Wilson, III and R.E. Berry [pg. 911]

Some Aspects of Citrus Biochemistry and Juice Quality.
S. Hasegawa and V.P. Maier [pg. 914]

Evaluation of Aroma Deterioration in Sweet Orange Oil on the Basis of Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Analysis.
J. Pino and M. Duran [pg. 918]

Fibre Strength of Citrus: Evaluation of a New Apparatus.
L.C. Holtzhausen and B.J. Grobler [pg. 921]

Utilization of Cylodextrins for Citrus Fruit Products.
M. Misaki, A. Konno, M. Miyawaki and K. Yasumatsu [pg. 924]

A New Approach to Pectin Manufacture from Satsuma Mandarin Peel by Copper Method.
P. Kausar and D. Nomura [pg. 928]

Molecular Weight Distribution of Water-Soluble Pectins in Citrus Juices.
A. Goto, C. Araki and Y. Izumi [pg. 931]

Gel Characteristics of Intermediate-Amide Pectins.
D.B. Nelson [pg. 934]

Quality Control of Sweet Orange Juice by Gas-Liquid Chromatography of Volatile Constituents.
J. Pino, R. Tapanes, A. Rosado and R. Baluja [pg. 936]

Keidanren Kaikan, Tokyo, Japan - 13 November 1981

Outlook for Califonia-Arizona Citrus Acreage and Production.
M. Johnson and W.A. Martinet [pg. 943]

The Florida Citrus Industry.
W. Grierson and H.J. Reitz [pg. 945]

Present Situation and Outlook of the Brazilian Citrus Industry.
D. C. Giacometti [pg. 947]

Argentina Citriculture.
E. Sartori [pg. 950]

The South African Citrus Industry.
J.H. Grobler and G.S. Bredell [pg. 965]

The Present Situation of Citrus Growing in Israel.
K. Mendel [pg. 967]

Present Situation and Future Prospect of the Citrus Industry in Italy.
F. Russo [pg. 969]

Citrus Industry in Spain.
J.M. del Rivero [pg. 973]

Shod Outlines on the Possibilities of the Improvement of Cooperation among Citrus Producing Countries in the Near East and North Africa.
U.C. Menini [pg. 986]

Development and Outlook of Citrus Industry in China.
Zhang Wen-Cai [pg. 987]

The Citrus Industry in Japan.
M. Nishiura [pg. 991]



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