Florida 2000



International Citrus Congress - Orlando, Florida 3-7 December 2000

Ninth meeting of the International Society of Citriculture



Symposium: New and Promising Scion Cultivars

USDA 77-19, An Early Ripening Grapefruit Hybrid
José X. Chaparro [pg. 28]

Performance of Juvenile Sweet Orange Selections on Swingle Citrumelo Rootstock
William S. Castle, James C. Baldwin, and Orie N. Lee [pg. 29]

Citrus Scion Breeding in California
Mikeal L. Roose and Timothy E. Williams [pg. 34]

Citrus Cultivars Released During the Past 10 Years in China
X.X. Deng [pg. 37]

Scion Cultivar Development in Concordia, Argentina
Catalina Anderson [pg. 39]

Development of Improved Sweet Oranges Via Somaclonal Variation
J.W. Grosser, J.L. Chandler, and F.G. Gmitter, Jr. [pg. 42]

Abstracts: New and Promising Scion Cultivars [pg. 46]

Improvement of Citrus Scion Cultivars by Cross Breeding in Japan
H. Nesumi and R. Matsumoto [pg. 46]

Symposium: New Citrus Rootstocks on the Horizon

Development of Improved Citrus Rootstocks Via Somatic Hybridization
J.W. Grosser and J.L. Chandler [pg. 47]

New Hybrid Citrus Rootstocks Developed by U.S. Department of Agriculture
Kim D. Bowman [pg. 51]

New Rootstocks Through Genetic Transformation
Gloria A. Moore, Vicente Febres, and Karen Champ [pg. 52]

New Rootstocks for the Citrus Industry in Argentina
J.L. Foguet [pg. 56]

New Hybrid Citrus Rootstocks Released in Spain
J.B. Forner, M.A. Forner, A. Alcaide, S. Verdejo-Lucas, and F.J. Sorribas [pg. 58]

Potential Citrus Cultivars in South Africa's Scion and Rootstock Development Pipeline
J.E. Miller, J.G.J. Maritz, I.I. Froneman, and P.J.J. Koekemoer [pg. 62]

Recent Development of Citrus Scions and Rootstocks in Italy
G. Reforgiato Recupero and E. Tribulato [pg. 66]

Symposium: Genes, Genomics, and Genetic Transformation

Linkage Mapping and Marker-Assisted Selection in Citrus
Mikeal L. Roose [pg. 69]

EST Mapping of Citrus
Mitsuo Omura, Taknori Ueda, Masayuki Kita, Akira Komatsu, Yuko Takanokura, Takehiko Shimada, Tomoko Endo-Inagaki, H. Nesumi, and T. Yoshida [pg. 71]

Mapping and Cloning Disease Resistance Genes in Citrus
Zhanao Deng, Shu Huang, Paul Ling, Changhe Yu, Chunxian Chen,Marjorie K. Wendell, Fred G. Gmitter,Jr., and Hong-Bin Zhang[pg. 75]

Genetic Transformation to Alter Naringin Content in Grapefruit
Gloria A. Moore, Fatma Kaplan, Ufuk Koca, Diane Luth, and Mark Berhow [pg. 78]

Genetic Transformation as a Tool for Citrus Improvement
L. Peña, M. Cervera, R. Ghorbel, A. Domínguez, C. Fagoaga, J. Juárez, J.A. Pina, and L. Navarro [pg. 82]

Chromosome Transfer Technology: A New Strategy for Citrus Breeding
E.S. Louzada and H.S. Del Rio [pg. 85]

Alternative Citrus Transformation with Emphasis on Disease Resistance
O. Olivares-Fuster, G.H. Fleming, M.R. Albiach-Marti, S. Gowda, and J.W. Grosser [pg. 88]

Posters: Citrus Biotechnology

Identification of Spoilage Organisms in Citrus Juice Products by Polymerase Chain Reaction
Covadonga Arias, Jackie Burns, Mickey Parish, and Renee Goodrich [pg. 91]

In Vitro Culture of lrnmature Embryos from 'Poncã' Mandarin Fertilized by 'Pera' Orange: Photoperiod
J.M. Cavalcante-Alves, M. Pasqual, L.F. Dutra, G.P. Alves, and D.R. Finotti [pg. 92]

Characterization of the Citrus Tristeza Virus Isolate Used in Australia to Protect Grapefruit against Severe Stem Pitting
C.Y. Zhou, R. Connor, P. Broadbent, D. Hailstones, and J. Bowyer [pg. 94]

Rapid DNA Extraction Methodology to Detect Xylella fastidiosa in Sharpshooter Leafhoppers by Nested-PCR
L.P. Ciapina and E.G.M. Lemos [pg. 96]

Molecular Evidence of the Presence of the Phytoplasma aurantifolia in Lime Seeds and Transmission to Seedlings
A. El-Kharbotly, A. Al-Shanfari, and A. Al-Subhi [pg. 97]

Production of Seven New Citrus Somatic Hybrids with Potential for Improved Blight and CTV Resistance
Francisco de Assis Alves Mouráo Filho, Vagner A. Benedito, Maria Angélica P. de Carvalho Costa, Beatriz M. Januzzi Mendes, and Paulo Celso de M. Farias [pg. [pg. 99]

Molecular Characterization of cDNA Clones for ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase from Citrus
In-Jung Kim, Seung-Jae Noh, Won-Il Chung, and Chan-Shick Kim [pg. 102]

Adaptation of Minipreps-SDS and Single-Step in the Extraction of Citrus DNA for PCR Analyses
Antonio Carlos de Oliveira, Aristides Novac Garcia, Marcos Aurélio Takita, and Marcos Antonio Machado [pg. 105]

Microprojectile Bombardment of DNA into Citrus Leaf and Fruit Tissues
R. Porat, N. Avidan and D. Holland [pg. 108]

Viroid Detection in Citrus Flowers and Use of Style Culture as an Alternative Method in Sanitation Programs
A Caruso, M. Guardo, G. Reforgiato Recupero, G. Russo, G. Terranova, and D. Pietro Paolo [pg. 110]

Gibberellin- and Auxin-regulated Expression of Ethylene Biosynthesis and Perception Genes in Citrus Roots
Francisco R. Tadeo, Domingo J. Iglesias, Eduardo Primo-Millo, Manuel Talon, Antonio Granell, Xavier Cubells-Martinez, and Aurelio Gomez-Cadenas [pg. 112]

Cloning of a Gene Encoding an ent-Copalyl Diphosphate Synthase of Carrizo Citrange and Analysis of Its Parents
C.R. Alapont, A.M. Vidal, M. Talón, and J.L. García-Martínez [pg. 114]

Evaluation of a CAPS Method Based on ESTs in Citrus
T. Ueda, F. Ikeda, M. Kita, T. Shimada, T. Endo-Inagaki, and M. Omura [pg. 116]

Changes in Gene Expression Induced by Heat Conditioning in the Cold-sensitive 'Fortune' Mandarin
M.T. Sanchez-Ballesta, M.J. Gosalbes, L. Zacarias, and M.T. Lafuente, Y. Lluch, and A. Granell [pg. 118]

Posters: Genetics/Breeding

In Vitro Culture of Immature Embryos of 'Poncã' Mandarin from Natural Fertilization: pH and Agar
G.P. Alves, M. Pasqual, L.F. Dutra, and J.M. Cavalcante-Alves [pg. 120]

Citrus Germplasm Resources and Their Use in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, and Uruguay
Catalina Anderson [pg. 123]

Assessing Genetic Diversity in Citrus by Utilizing Molecular Markers
Noelle A. Barkley, Mikeal L. Roose, and Robert R. Krueger [pg. 126]

Fruit Quality Evaluations of Late Navel Orange Selections in California
T.L. Kahn and O.J. Bier [pg. 128]

New Seedless Lemon Cultivars for Sicily
Francesco Calabrese, Andrea De Michele, Francesca Barone, and Vincenzo Somma [pg. 130]

Somatic Embryogenesis from Lemon Styles and Analysis of Genetic Stability in Regenerated Plants Using RAPD and Flow Cytometry
Milica Calovic, Zenaida Viloria, Beatriz Nielsen, Fred G. Gmitter, Jr., William S. Castle, and Jude W. Grosser [pg. 131]

'FINO 95': An Extra-early Selection of Lemon
L. Porras Castillo, M. García Lidón, M. Sánchez Baños, A. García Lidón, F.J. Bleda Fernández, and A. Conesa Martínez [pg. 135]

Identification of Sexual and Nucellar Citrus Seedlings through Single and Duplex PCR of Simple SequenceRepeat Loci
Antonio Carlos de OliveiraValdenice Moreira Novelli, Aristides Novac Garcia, Mariángela Cristofani, and Marcos Antonio Machado[pg. 138]

Chromosome Number Variation of Citrus Embryogenic Calli during Subculture
X.X. Deng and Y.J. Hao [pg. 142]

Somatic Hybridization Between Diploids and an Allotetraploid Somatic Hybrid of Citrus
W.W. Guo, G.H. Yu, and X.X. Deng [pg. 145]

Somatic Embryogenesis from Style Culture: A New Technique for the Sanitation, Conservation, and Safe Exchange of Citrus Germplasm
A.M. D'Onghia, F. Carimi and F. De Pasquale, K. Djelouah, and G.P. Martelli [pg. 147]

In Vitro Culture of Immature Embryos from 'Poncã' Fruits Fertilized by 'Pera' Orange: Storage of Fruit and Sucrose
L.F. Dutra,M. Pasqual, G.P. Alves, J.M. Cavalcante-Alves, and L.O. Ribeiro [pg. 150]

Selection of Some Superior Variants of Orange and Mandarin Seedling Trees
Samir Z. El-Agamy, M.A. Husein, F.A. Mostafa, and M.M. Shaaban [pg. 153]

Australian Citrus Improvement Program
P. Florissen, G.P. Sanderson, and P. Broadbent [pg. 155]

The Origin of Interdonato Lemon Inferred from cpRFLP, SSR, Isozyme, and ISSR Markers
O. Gulsen and M.L. Roose [pg. 158]

Production and Identification of Interspecific Diploid Cybrids by Symmetric Protoplast Fusion in Citrus
W.W. Guo, J.H. Liu, G.H. Yu, and X.X. Deng [pg. 160]

The UC Riverside Citrus Variety Collection: Cornerstone of the California Citrus Genetic Resources Conservation and Utilization System
T.L. Kahn, O.I. Bier, M. Roose, R. Krueger, and D. Gumpf [pg. 162]

Characterization of Interploid Hybrids of 'Kinnow' Mandarin
M.J. Jaskani and L.A. Khan [pg. 164]

Use of Molecular Markers in Management of Citrus Germplasm Resources
R.R. Krueger, O. GuIsen, and M.L. Roose [pg. 167]

Identification of 2n Gamete Parental Origin and Mode of Nuclear Restitution of Spontaneous Triploid Citrus Hybrids
F. Luro, F. Maddy, P. Ollitrault and D. Rist [pg. 168]

Sequence Tagged Microsatellites Polymorphism: An Alternative Tool for Cultivar Identification and Evaluation of Genetic Relationships in Citrus
F. Luro, D. Rist, and P. Ollitrault [pg. 170]

In Vitro Embryo Rescue of Citrus and Identification of Hybrid Morphometric Features and Molecular Markers
Antonio Carlos de Oliveira and Marcos Antonio Machado [pg. 172]

Construction of Linkage Maps of Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus sunki Based on Microsatellite Markers
M. Cristofani, M.A. Machado, V.M. Novelli, A.A. de Souza, and M.L.P.N. Targon [pg. 175]

Linkage Analysis Between Male Sterility of Citrus and STS Markers
M. Nakano, H. Nesumi, T. Yoshioka, M. Omura, and T. Yoshida [pg. 179]

Variations in the Female Reproductive Incapacity of Satsuma Mandarin and Their Inheritance
H. Nesumi, T. Yoshioka, M. Nakano, and T. Yoshida [pg. 181]

Molecular Analysis of the Phylogenetic Relationships Among 12 Citron Accessions
Elisabetta Nicolosi, Stefano La Malfa, and Eliezer E. Goldschmidt [pg. 183]

Citrus Germplasm Exploitation by Somatic Hybridization 
Patrick Ollitrault, Yann Froelicher, Francoíse Carreel, Satumin Bruyere, Fanny Vanel, Franck Maddi, Dominique Dambier,Angélique D'Hont, Samia Lotfy, Ali Joumaa, Oiga Mas Camacho, and Francois Luro [pg. 184]

Establishment of Genetically Certified In Vitro Lines of Trifoliate Rootstocks for Use in Somatic Hybridization Programs
O. Mas, N. Rodríguez, B. Velázquez, P. Ollitrault, Y. Froelicher, and D. Rist [pg. 187]

In Situ Hybridization for Polyploid Citrus Genome Analysis
P. Ollitrault, K. Tréanton, D. Dambier, and A. D'Hont [pg. 189]

In Vitro Culture of 'Poncã' Immature Embryos from Natural Fertilization: Murashige and Skoog (MS) Medium Salts and Sucrose
M. Pasqual, G.P. Alves, J.M. Cavalcante-Alves, and L.F. Dutra [pg. 191]

New Mandarin Cultivars for São Paulo State, Brazil
R.M. Pio [pg. 195]

Identification of Clementine Cultivars-Ecotypes using Molecular Markers
Girolamo Russo, M.G. Corona, and G.G. Vendramin [pg. 196]

The Development of Citrus Triploid Hybrids
G. Russo, S. Recupero, and G. Reforgiato Recupero 198]

Fluorescent Banding Pattems of Mandarin Chromosomes
Masashi Yamamoto and Shigeto Tominaga [pg. 200]

Regulation of Flowering in the 'Washington' Navel Orange: Floral Cenes
Lynn J. Pillitteri, Linda L. Walling, Carol J. Lovatt, and Bradley C. Hyman [pg. 201]

Abstracts: Genetics/Breeding [pg. 205-214]

Citrus Gene Arrays
Michael G. Bausher [pg. 205]

Genetic Transformation of Citrus paradisi with the RNA- 208 Dependent RNA Polymerase Gene of Citrus Tristeza Closterovirus
Bayram Cevik, Richard F. Lee, Gloria A. Moore, and Charles L. Niblett [pg. 205]

Expression of Freezing Tolerance Transcriptional Activators in Citrus
Karen I. Champ and Gloria A. Moore [pg. 205]

Screening of Overlapping Citrus BAC Clones with SCAR and RAPO Primers
Chunxian Chen, Zhanao Deng, Paul Ling, Changhe Yu, Shu Huang, Margie K. Wendell, and Fred G. Gmitter Jr. [pg. 205]

Manipulation of the Flavonoid Biosynthetic Pathway in Citrus to Decrease Bitter Taste or Increase the Flavanoid Content to Have Better Acceptability of Fruits
Ufuk Koca, Diane Luth, Mark Berhow, and Gloria A. Moore 205]

Production and Maintenance of Transgenic Valencia Suspension Cells for Use in Chromosome Transfer
E.S. Louzada and H.S. Del Rio [pg. 206]

Genome Sequencing of the Citrus Tristeza Virus Protective Isolate and Comparison with Other Isolates
M.L.P.N. Targon, M.A Machado, G.W. Müller, E.e. Locali, and M. Cristofani [pg. 206]

Microsatellite Markers for Studying the Diversity of Xylellafastidiosa of Citrus
Helvécio D. Coletta Filho, Marcos A. Takita, Alessandra A. Souza, and Marcos A. Machado [pg. 206]

Transformation of Xylellafastidiosa CVC Strain with an oriC Plasmid
P.B. Monteiro, D.C. Teixeira, M. Gamier, J.M. Bové, and J. Renaudin [pg. 206]

Developmental Expression of Carotenoid Biosynthetic Genes in Citrus
C.D. Moreira, J. Melton, and G.A. Moore [pg. 206]

Using GFP to Select for Transgenic Sweet Orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] Derived from Electroporated Protoplasts
Randall P. Niedz, William L. McKendree, and Robert G. Shatters, Jr. [pg. 207]

Molecular Strategies for Improving Citrus Viroid Dwarfing Agents
R.A. Owens, S.M. Thompson, and S.M. Gamsey [pg. 207]

Development of CAPS (Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequences) for Cytoplasmic Genome Studies in Aurantioideae Sub-family
Y. Froelicher, S. Lotfy, D. Rist, F. Luro, F. Carreel, and P. Ollitrault [pg. 208]

Molecular Strategies for Improving Citrus Viroid Dwarfing Agents
R.A. Owens, S.M. Thompson, and S.M. Garnsey [pg. 208]

Research on Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation of the 'Shatian' Purnrnelo [Citrus grandis (L.) Osb.] with the Synthetic Oak Silkworm Antibacterial Peptide D Gene 
Chen Dacheng, Huang Ziran, Zheng Qifa, and Hu Guibing [pg. 207]

Random Expressed-Sequence- Tag Sequencing of a Marsh Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) Flavedo Library
R.G. Shatters, Jr., T.G. McCollum, H. Doostdar, and R.T. Mayer [pg. 208]

Isolation and Tissue Regulation of Seven Proteinase Inhibitor Genes Found in Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) Flavedo
X.H. Sinisterra, R.G. Shatters, Jr., T.G. McCollum, H. Doostdar, and R.T. Mayer [pg. 208]

Experimental Evidence ofTransposable Elements in Sweet Orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.]
M.A. Takita, M.A. van Sluys, and M.A. Machado [pg. [pg. 208]

The Ectopic Overexpression of a Citrus Gibberellin 20-Oxidase Alters the Gibberellin Content and Induces an Extremely Elongated Phenotype in Tobacco
A.M. Vidal, C. Gisbert, I. Lopez-Diaz, J.L. Garcia-Martinez, E. Primo-Millo, and M. Talon [pg. 208]

lmproving the Efficiency of Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation and Plant Regeneration in Citrus
Changhe Yu, Shu Huang, Chunxian Chen, Zhanao Deng, Paul Ling, and Fred G. Gmitter, Jr. [pg. 209]

A Conclusion of a Thirty- Year-Old Rootstock Trial on Grapefruit in Respect to Trunk Growth and Mortality
R.K. Arora [pg. 209]

New Easy-peeling Citrus Hybrids
L. Bello, G. Sosa, and M. Fernández [pg. 209]

Comparison of Mechanisms Involved in Mandarin Somatic Variability
M.P. Bretó, C. Ruiz, J.A. Pina, and M.J. Asíns [pg. 209]

Variance among Poncirus Accessions from the People's Republic of China
P. Broadbent, S.R. Sykes, K.B. Bevington, Chen Zhusheng, D. Hailstones, and W.J. Lewis [pg. 210]

New Seedless Lemon Varieties for Sicily
F. Calabrese, A. De Michele, F. Barone, and V. Somma [pg. 210]

Segregation Distortion for the Contorted Growth Habit in Flying Dragon Progeny
José X. Chaparro, Kim D. Bowman, and William L. McKendree [pg. 210]

Analysis of Meiotic Behavior of the Tetraploid Clausena excavata Species by Molecular Marker Segregation Studies
Y. Froelicher, F. Luro, and P. Ollitrault [pg. 210]

Cryopreservation of In Vitro "Troyer' Citrange Shoot Tips
Q. Wang, O. Batuman, M. Bar-Joseph, and R. Gafny [pg. 210]

Gynogenetic Haploids of Citrus after In Vitro Pollination with Triploid Pollen Grains
M.A. Germaná and B. Chiancone [pg. 210]

Decontamination ofMandarin and Tangelo Cultivars in El Menzeh Germplasm, 1994-98
N. Handaji, N. Arsalane, and M. Llyori [pg. [pg. 210]

In Vitro Micropropagation and In Vivo Vitroplant Grafting of Triploid Citrus Hybrids
D. Hmoumi, N. Handaji, A. Rachidai, and N. Arsalane [pg. 211]

New Citrus Triploids Hybrids from Diploid Crosses Between Clementina and Eight Mandarins
N. Handaji, D. Hmoumi, and N. Arsalane [pg. 211]

Evaluation of Genetic Diversities Among Citrus Plants in China by Molecular Markers
Chun Gen Hu and X.X. Deng [pg. [pg. 211]

Studies on the Origin of a Natural Citrus Hybrid, 'Wenling Gaocheng', Using RAPD
Xu Jianguo, Sun Jianhua, Weng Faling, and Chen Minhua [pg. 211]

Regeneration Of Two Diploid Intergeneric Somatic Hybrid Plants Between Citrus And Microcitrus Via Electrofusion
Liu Jihong and Deng Xiuxin [pg. 211]

Shoot Regeneration from Epicotyl Segments of Rough Lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.)
M. Kayim, J.W. Grosser, G. Barthe, and K.S. Derrick [pg. 212]

Molecular Genetic Analysis of Nucellar Embryony (Apomixis) in Citrus maxima Poncirus trifoliata Using AFLP
J.L. Kepiro and M.L. Roose [pg. 212]

Protoplast Fusion Between 'Zagara Bianca' and 'Küütdiken' Lemon [Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.] Cultivars and Identification of the Somatic Hybrids Using RAPD Markers and Flow Cytometry
N. Kemal Koçç, and Mukaddes Kayim [pg. 212]

'Honyou'-A Red-Color Mutant of Purnmelo
S.Q. Lin and Q.Y. Zhang [pg. 212]

Development and Evaluation of Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) Markers in Citrus
V.M. Novelli, M.A. Machado, A.A. de Souza, and M. Cristofani [pg. 213]

Differentiation of Lemon Varieties by Microsatellites
M. Cristofani, I.O. Figueiredo, M.L.P.N. Targon, and M.A. Machado [pg. 213]

Citrus Cultivars Improvement by Plant Tissue Culture in New Zealand
Pauline Mooney and Jinhu Wu [pg. 213]

Improved Inductíon and Development of Sweet Orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] Somatic Embryos from Embryogenic Callus
Randall P. Niedz and Michael C. Bausher [pg. 213]

QTL Analysis of Morphological Traits in Citrus Using RAPD Markers
Mehtap Sahin-Cevik and Gloria A. Moore [pg. 213]

An Improved Method for Rescuing Triploid Embryos from Aborted Fruit of Diploid x Tetraploid Hand-pollinated Crosses
T.E. Williams and M.L. Roose [pg. 214]

Profiles and Inheritance of Carotenoids in Citrus Juice
T. Yoshioka and R. Matsumoto [pg. 214]


Symposium: Geographic /nformation System (G/S) Data in Florida Citrus

Integrating GIS Data into a Precision Agriculture System
Jodie Whitney, Adair Wheaton, and William Miller [pg. 215]

Abstracts: Geographic /nformation System (G/S) Data in Florida Citrus [pg. 219]

Getting Started
Scott L. Peterich [pg. 219]

A Grower's Perspective
Curt McDowell and David Israel [pg. 219]

Citrus Yield Monitoring and Mapping
Neal Horrom [pg. 219]

Variable Rate Technology
Doug Thompson [pg. 219]

Symposium: Water Use of Citrus

Relevance of Research Done on Water Use of Citrus and Possible Trends for the New Millennium
S.F. du Plessis [pg. 220]

Water Use of Developing Citrus Canopies in Valencia, Spain
Juan R. Castel [pg. 223]

Evaluation of Regulated Deficit Irrigation on Mature Orange Trees Grown Under High Evaporative Demand
David A. Goldhamer and Mario Salinas [pg. [pg. 227]

Effects of Fertigation Frequencies and Irrigation Systems on Performance of Valencia Oranges in Two Subtropical Areas of South Africa
J.A. Kruger, C.D. Tolmay, and K. Britz [pg. 232]

Irrigation and Florida Citrus
Larry R. Parsons [pg. 236]

Evaluation of an Open Hydroponics System (OHS) for Citrus in South Africa: Preliminary Results
J.A. Kruger, K. Britz, C.D. Tolmay, and S.F. du Plessis [pg. 239]

Symposium: Advances in Agrochemical Application Techology

Delivering Citrus Crop Protection Agents in the Next Millennium
Franklin R. Hall [pg. 243]

Effective Application of Pesticides in Florida Citrus Production
Masoud Salyani [pg. 248]

Evaluation of a Tree Sensing Device to Reduce the Use of Pesticides in Citrus
Paolo Balsari, Paolo Marucco, Mario Tarnagnone, Cristina Bellissima, Emanuele Cerruto, and Sabina Failla [pg. 252]

Comparison between Pesticide Application Methods in Citrus
Giarnpaolo Schillaci, Cristina Bellissima, Sabina Failla, Paolo Marucco, and Mario Tarnagnone [pg. 257]

Citrus Spray Application in Israel
G. Manor, S. Tabak, A. Geva, U. Gilad and B. Bortman [pg. 262]

Drift from Spraying Orchards
Robert D. Fox, Richard C. Derksen, and Ross D. Brazee [pg. 268]

Symposium: Mechanical Harvesting Citrus in Florida

Overview of Mechanical Harvesting in Florida Citrus
G.K. Brown [pg. 273]

Performance of Mechanical Citrus Harvesters in Florida
Jodie Whitney [pg. 277]

Measuring Performance of Citrus Harvesting Systems
Fritz Roka, Galen Brown, and Ronald Muraro [pg. 280]

Abscission Materials as an Aid for Harvesting Florida Citrus
Walter J. Kender and Ulrich Hartmond [pg. 285]

Abstracts: Mechanical Harvesting Citrus in Florida

Principles of Climatic Effects on Flowering in Citrus
Thomas L. Davenport [pg. 289]

Influence of Citrus Tree Internal Factors and Climatic Effects on Flowering
A. García-Luis and J.L. Guardiola [pg. 292]

Modeling Flowering Date of Sweet Orange Trees in Central Florida Based on Historical Weather
Juan I. Valiente and L. Gene Albrigo [pg. 296]

Reassessment of Climatic Effects on Fruit Maturation in Citrus towards the Development of a Fruit Maturation and Quality Model
Eliezer E. Goldschmidt [pg. 300]

Temperature Effects on the Composition of Satsuma Mandarins in New Zealand
Annette C. Richardson, Kenneth B. Marsh, and Elspeth A. MacRae [pg. 303]

Juice Quality of 'Valencia' Sweet Orange among Citrus producing Regions in Florida and between Canopy Positions
Graham H. Barry, William S. Castle, and Frederick S. Davies [pg. 308]

Maturation of Navel Oranges Related to Temperature Modeling in Different Climatic Regions of Chile
J.E. Ortuzar, J. Martiz, V. Raga, A. Farias, and J. Quinteros [pg. 315]

Symposium: Managing Orchards to Minimize Environmental Impacts

Citrus Operations as Components of Ecosystems: Planning for Needs of Wildlife
Martin Main [pg. 320]

Using Modern Irrigation Scheduling Techniques to Keep Soil-applied Chemicals in the Root Zone
A. Fares, A.K. Alva, and T.A Obreza [pg. 323]

Estimating Nitrogen Leaching for Various Citrus Management Conditions
Brian L. McNeal and Leonel A. Espinoza [pg. 326]

Managing Phosphorus for Maximum Citrus Yield and Quality
Thomas A. Obreza [pg. 330]

The Effect of Rootstock and Nutrition on the Response of Grapefruit Trees to Salinity
Yoseph Levy, Eran Raveh, and Josepha Lifshitz [pg. 334]

Abstracts: Managing Orchards to Minimize Environmental Impacs [pg. 338]

Improved Water Management of Agricultural Impoundments
E.G. Flaig [pg. 338]

Optimal Citrus Production and Water Quality in Sandy Entisols
A.K. Alva, S. Pararnasivam, T.A Wheaton, J.P. Syvertsen, and D.P.H. Tucker [pg. 338]

Symposium: Manipulation ofGrowth and Development in Citrus

Objectives in Manipulating Growth and Development in Citrus
Mohamed El-Otmani [pg. 339]

Regulation of Flowering and Fruit Development: Endogenous Factors and Exogenous Manipulation 
José Luis Guardiola [pg. [pg. 342]

Regulation of Flowering in the 'Washington' Navel Orange: Floral Genes
Lynn J. Pillitteri, Linda L. Walling, Bradley C. Hyman, and Carol J. Lovatt [pg. 347]

Regulation of Citrus Cropping and Improvement of Fruit Quality using Exogenous Plant Growth Regulators
Manuel Agustí [pg. 351]

Manipulation of Citrus Flowering and Fruiting by Pruning
Andrew Krajewski and Timothy Pittaway [pg. 357]

Manipulation of Fruit Set in Citrus: Function and Effects of Gibberellins
M. Talon, J. Mehouachi, and E. Primo-Millo [pg. 361]

Maturation of Citrus Fruit: Hormonal and Molecular Regulation of Chlorophyll Breakdown and Other Processes
Eliezer E. Goldschmidt [pg. 364]

Auxin-Ethylene Interaction in Relation to Abscission in Citrus
Raphael Goren, Leo Winer, and Joseph Riov [pg. 367]

Symposium: Citrus Orchard Floor Management

Weed Management in Citrus
Megh Singh [pg. 370]

Middles Management in Florida Citrus Orchards
Stephen H. Futch [pg. 377]

Geographic Information System (GIS) Data in Florida Citrus Variable Rate Technology
Kieth Hollingsworth [pg. 379]

A Novel Strategy to Manage Weedy Grasses on the Citrus Orchard Floor
S. Chandramohan and R. Charudattan, R.M. Sonoda, and Megh Singh [pg. 380]

Abstracts: Citrus Orchard Floor Management [pg. 383]

Integrated Weed Management in Citrus Orchards of the Mediterranean Area
Diego Gómez de Barreda Castillo [pg. 383]

Weed Management Strategies in Citrus in Brazil
R. Victoria Filho [pg. 383]

Symposium: Citrus Frost Protection and Cold Hardiness

A Brief History of Florida Citrus Freezes
John A. Attaway [pg. 384]

Florida Freeze Forecasts 
John F. Gerber [pg. 387]

Microsprinkler Irrigation for Citrus Freeze Protection
Larry R. Parsons [pg. 390]

Florida Citrus Freeze Protection Methods
J.J. Ferguson [pg. 393]

Supercooling and Ice Nucleation in Citrus Leaves
Steven Rogers [pg. 396]

Toward Metabolic Engineering of Cold Hardiness
Andrew D. Hanson, SCOllD. McNeil, and Michael L. Nuccio [pg. 401]

Molecular Genetic Studies on Cold Acclimation and Freezing Tolerance in Citrus
Gloria A. Moore, Ilhami Tozlu, Karen Champ, Courtney A. Weber, and Charles L. Guy [pg. 405]

The Role of Somatic Hybridization in Improving Citrus Cold-hardiness and Cold Protection
J.W. Grosser, F.G. Gmitter, Jr., and J.L. Chandler [pg. [pg. 410]

Abstracts: Citrus Frost Proteetion and Cold Hardiness [pg. 413]

Citrus Frost Protection in California during the Past 20 Years
Mark Freeman, Neil O'Connell, and Rick Snyder [pg. 413]

Posters: Fertilizer/Nutrition

Effect of Preharvest Foliar Spray of K and Ca on the Incidence of 'Fortune' Mandarin Fruit Peel Pitting in Low Temperature Storage
A. Ait-Oubahou, M. El-Otmani, R. Taraf, M. Goumari, M. Talhi, E.-B. Nadori, D. Ezzoubir, and M. Hanich [pg. 414]

Foliar Urea as a Substitute for Soil Applied N during Establishment of Citrus Trees
L. Gene Albrigo and James P. Syvertsen [pg. 417]

Correlation Interactions Between Soil and Leaf Mineral Elements in 'Tahiti' Lime Orchards of the Barka Region in the Sultanate of Oman
S.A. Al-Rasbi, P. Cookson, I.A. Khan, and S.A Rawahy [pg. 421]

Containerized Citrus Nursery Tree Production and Nutrient Levels in Response to NPK Fertilization
A.C.C. Bernardi, Q.A.C. Carmello, and S.A Carvalho [pg. 424]

Total and Readily Soluble Nutrient Levels in Leaves and Roots of Containerized Citrus Nursery Trees in Response to NPK Fertilization
A.C.C. Bernardi, Q.A.C. Carmello, and S.A. Carvalho [pg. 426]

Effect of Potassium Phosphite on Flowering, Yield, and Tree Health of 'Clementine' Mandarin
M. El-Otmani, A. Ait-Oubahou, H. Gousrire, Y. Hamza, and C.J. Lovatt [pg. 428]

Interrelationship of Nutrient Status of Orange Leaves from Fruiting and Non-fruiting Terrninals and Their Conversion Factors
I.A. Khan, A. Srikandakumar, and T.W. Embleton [pg. [pg. 433]

Transformations of 15N-Labeled Arnmonium Sulfate Applied to Citrus Trees in Spring
J.M. Martínez, J. Bañuls, A. Quiñones, M.D. Serna, E. Primo-Millo, and F. Legaz [pg. 435]

Critical Leaf Nutrient Status for Optimal Fruit Production under Differing Fertilizer Management Practices
S. Paramasivam, A.K. Alva, T.A. Wheaton, J.P. Syvertsen, and D.P.H. Tucker [pg. 437]

Physiological and Production Considerations for Improving Nitrogen Uptake Efficiency of Citrus
J.M.S. Scholberg, L.R. Parsons, T.A. Wheaton, and K.T. Morgan [pg. 440]

Incidence of Superficial Rind-pitting (Nuxan) in 'Shamouti' Orange as Affected by Potassium Treatments
Tamim Moshe, Assaf Shachnai, Eliezer E. Goldschrnidt, and Raphael Goren [pg. 442]

Abstracts: Fertilizer/Nutrition [pg. 444]

A Nutritional Status Survey of Diseased Lime Groves in the Barka Region of the Sultanate of Oman
S.A.R. Al-Rasbi, I.A. Khan, P. Cookson, and S.A. Al-Rawahy [pg. 444]

Posters: Horticulture

The BBCH Scale for Describing Phenological Stages in Citrus Development
M. Agustí, S. Zaragoza, H. Bleiholder, L. Buhr, H. Hack, R. Klose, and R. Staub [pg. 445]

The California Citrus Industry-Transition into the Future
C. Thomas Chao [pg. 447]

Clementine Mandarin (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.) Yields and Fruit Quality in New Zealand
A.J. Currie, P.G. Sutton, T. Machin, P. Anderson, and P. Alspach [pg. 449]

Texas Citriculture-Past and Present
J.V. da Graca and J.W. Sauls [pg. 451]

Texas Virus-free Citrus Budwood Program Developments
C.J. Kahlke, J.V. da Graca, M. Skaria, and N. Solís-Gracia [pg. 452]

Creasing of 'Washington' Navel Orange in Uruguay: Study and Control
G. Garnbetta, H. Arbiza, A. Ferenczi, A. Gravina, L. Orlando, V. Severino, and A. Telias [pg. 453]

Early Prediction of Fruit Size at Harvest for 'Valencia' Orange Using Experimental Data
J.E. Franco and A. Gravina [pg. 456]

The Effect of Cover Crop Planting Dates on Winter Minimum Temperatures in a Citrus Orchard
Stan A. Otremba and Robert J. McNeil [pg. 459]

High Density Planting Systems for Satsuma Mandarin in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan
Junpei Morimoto and Yoshikazu Ozawa [pg. 460]

The Citrus Industry in Tropical Areas of Brazil
O.S. Passos, A.P. da Cunha Sobrinho, M.T. de Castro Neto, and José da S. Souza [pg. 462]

Preliminary Results on Performance of Some Clementine Selections in Three Mediterranean Areas
G. Russo, S. Recupero, G. Reforgiato Recupero, A. Caruso, G. Terranova, A. Starrantino, C. Jacquemond, F. Curk, R. Zurro, G. Casula, B. Deidda, and F. Perri [pg. 465]

Comparative Performance of 15 'Pera' Orange Selections in São Paulo, Brazil
Joaquim Teófilo Sobrinho, Jorgino Pompeu Jr., Gerd Walter Müller, José Orlando de Figueiredo, Francisco Ferraz Laranjeira, and Ary Apparecido Salibe [pg. 468]

Relationship between Production of 'Ponkan' Mandarin and Rainfall in the Federal District of Brazil
Antonio Tubelis and Josiana Zanotelli dos Santos [pg. 471]

Relationships between Production of 'Westin' Sweet Orange Trees on Rangpur Lime Rootstock, Orchard Age, and Monthly Rainfall on the Plateau of Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil
Antonio Tubelis, Ary Apparecido Salibe, and Gislene Pessin [pg. 473]

Physiological and Yield Responses to Pruning in Three Citrus Cultivars
H. Arbiza, A. Ferenczi, G. Gambetta, F. Rivas, and A. Gravina [pg. 475]

Evaluation of Nine Rootstocks for 'Owari' Satsuma Mandarin in Uruguay
L. Bisio, B. Vignale, F. Carrau, and J.C. Diez [pg. 479]

Performance of 'Okitsu Wase' and 'Dobashi Beni' Satsuma Mandarins on Eight Different Rootstocks in California's Central Valley
Louise Ferguson, Heraclio Reyes, Paul Metheney, Mary Lu Arpaia, and C.T. Chao [pg. 482]

'Miyagawa' Satsuma Mandarin Rootstock Trial in New Zealand
A.J. Currie, P.G. Sutton, T. Machin, and P. Anderson [pg. 485]

Rootstocks for 'Tahiti' Lime in São Paulo State, Brazil
José Orlando Figueiredo, Francisco F. Laranjeira, Joaquim Teófilo Sobrinho, and Rose Mary Pio, Eduardo Stuchi, Luiz Carlos Donadio, Otávio R. Sempionato, and José Eduardo O. Lima [pg. 487]

Trifoliate Orange Rootstocks to Control Tree Size of 'Mexican' Lime
Victor Manuel Medina-Urrutia, Salvador Becerra-Rodríguez, and M. Manuel Robles-González [pg. 490]

High Density Citrus Plantings under Replant Conditions
A. Giuffrida, F. Intrigliolo, and G. Reforgiato Recupero [pg. 494]

Performance of Bergamot on Several Rootstocks
A. Caruso, F. Gazea, G. Terranova, G. Russo, and G. Cicciarello [pg. 500]

Performance of 'XianFeng Chen' Orange on Trifoliate Orange Rootstock Selections in China
Chen Zhusheng, Wan Liangzhen, Wu Tao, and Jiang Dong [pg. 503]

Effect of Rootstock on Growth and Photosynthesis of Citrus Cultivars in Japan
Fumitaka Takishita, Makoto Uchida, and Shinnosuke Kusaba [pg. 506]

Evaluation of Lemon Scions for the Southwest Arizona Lemon Industry
G.C. Wright and M.A Peña [pg. 508]

Yield of 'Ponkan' Mandarin Trees Grafted on 14 Rootstocks Grown under Savanna Conditions of Brasília-DF, Brazil
M.E. Oliveira Jr., I. Manica, T.V. Parente, and O.K. Yarnanishi [pg. 511]

Rind Breakdown in Navelate Oranges: Influence of the Rootstock
Lorenzo Zacarías, Fernando Alférez, Norbeto Gariglio, Vicente Almela, and Manuel Agustí [pg. 512]

Influence of Manual Pruning on Citrus Fruit Quality and Production
S. Zaragoza, I. Trénor, and A. Medina [pg. 513]

The 'Mexican' Lime Industry in Mexico: An Overview
Victor M. Medina-Urrutia and Manuel Robles-González [pg. 515]

The Present and Future of Citrus Production and Marketing in China
Zhaomin Shen [pg. 520]

Posters: Salinity

Effect of Salinity on Nitrate Transport Systems of Citrus Roots
M. Cerezo, V. Flors, P. García-Agustín, and E. Primo-Millo [pg. 521]

Salinity and Water Effects on Yield, Fruit Quality, and Mineral Composition of 'Fino 49' Lemon
F. García-Sanchez, V. Mártinez, M. Sanchez, and I. Porras [pg. 527]

Territorial Variability in Chemical and Physical Soil Characteristics in Calabrian Bergamot Growing Areas
F. Intrigliolo, A. Giuffrida, A. Caruso, G. Russo, B. Torrisi, and G. Lacertosa [pg. 532]

Effect of Different Fertilizer Rates and Wastewater Composition on Plant Growth and Fruit Quality in Citrus
M. Cerezo, V. Flors, L. Lapeña, P. García-Agustín, and J. Tuñón [pg. 537]

Citrus Responses to Boron under Saline Conditions
Uri Yermiyahu, Eran Raveh, Inna Faingold, and Rami Keren [pg. 541]

Posters: Irrigation

Lysimeter Evapotranspiration Measurements for Young 'Valencia' Orange Trees
Brian J. Boman [pg. 544]

Irrigation, Tree Planting Density, and Valencia Orange Productivity
Carmen Goñi and Alvaro Otero [pg. 549]

A Drip Irrigation System under Year-round Plastic Mulch to Improve the Quality of Satsuma Mandarin Fruit
H. Yoshikawa-Yamanishi, S. Nakao, and Y. Hasegawa [pg. 552]

Irrigation of Florida Citrus Groves with Reclaimed Municipal Wastewater
Mongi Zekri, L. Parsons, and Robert C.J. Koo [pg. 554]

Posters: Plant Growth Regulators

Prebloom Foliar Urea Application Increases Fruit Set, Size, and Yield of Clementine Mandarin
M. El-Otmani, A. Ait-Oubahou, F.-Z. Taibi, B. Lmoufid, M. El-Hila, and C.J. Lovatt [pg. 559]

Effect of Urea, Gibberellic Acid, and Flower Bud Position on Flowering and Yield of 'Cadoux' and 'Nour' Clementine Mandarins
M. El-Otmani, F.-Z. Taibi, A. Ait-Oubahou, and D. Agostini [pg. 563]

Gibberellic Acid Tirning Effects on Peel Color and Brix of Processing Oranges
Matthew W. Fidelibus and Frederick S. Davies [pg. 567]

Effects of NAA and 2,4-DP on Fruit Size, Yield, and Creasing of 'Newhall' and 'Carter' Navel Oranges
J. Greenberg, I. Mossak, and I. Kaplan [pg. 569]

Tree Growth and Indole Acetic Acid and Abscisic Acid Levels for Citrus Rootstock Seedlings
Isao Iwagaki and Kazuyoshi Yuasa, Katsuji Noda, and Hitoshi Okuda [pg. 572]

Control of Fruit Number, Size, and Quality of the Easy-peeling Tangerine Hybrid 'Nova' by Growth Regulators
Yehoshua Kanonich, Eliezer E. Goldschmidt, Raphael Goren, and Y. Erner [pg. 574]

Flowering, Fruit Set, and Yield of 'Natal' Sweet Orange after Treatment with Three Rates of Gibberellic Acid
Eduardo Sanches Stuchi, José Antonio Alberto da Silva, and Luiz Carlos Donadio [pg. 576]

Ethylene Action Inhibitors Reduce Ethrel®-induced Leaf Drop and Gummosis in Citrus
Luis Pozo and Jacqueline K. Burns [pg. 578]

Abstracts: Horticulture [pg. 580-590]

Practices to Increase the Winter Yield of "Tahiti' Lime (Citrus latifolia Tan.) at Veracruz, México
G. Alrnaguer-Vargas and F. Jiménez [pg. 580]

Losses of N in a Citrus Orchard Treated with Different N Sources
H. Cantarella, D. de Mattos, Jr., and J.A. Quaggio [pg. [pg. 580]

Silicon Fertilization for Citrus
V.V. Matichenkov, E.A. Bocharnikova, and D.V. Calvert [pg. 580]

Biomass Distribution and 15N Partitioning of Citrus Trees on a Sandy Florida Entisol
D. de Mattos, Jr., A.K. Alva, and D.A. Graetz [pg. 580]

Penetration of Urea through Isolated Citrus Leaf Cuticles Is Affected by Ambient Air Temperature, Humidity, and Leaf Age
Vladimir Orbovic, Diann Achor, Peter Petracek, and James P. Syvertsen [pg. 580]

Surfactants and Foliar Sprays Affect Penetration Through Cutic1es and Net Assimilation of CO, in Citrus Leaves
Vladimir Orbovic, John L. Jifon, and James P. Syvertsen [pg. 581]

Fruit Quality ofTwo Sweet Orange Varieties Affected by NPK Rates in Tropical Soils
J.A. Quaggio, H. Cantarella, D. de Mattos, and A. Novello [pg. 581]

'Eureka' Lemon and 'Tahiti' Lime Production in Brazil
A.A. Amaro, A.A. Salibe, and J. Teófilo Sobrinho [pg. 581]

Factors Affecting Citrus Production and Fruit Quality
David P.H. Tucker, Graham H. Barry, and Renée M. Goodrich [pg. 581]

California Citrus Improvement Program
Ted A. Batkin [pg. 581]

Influence of Physical Environment and Farming Practices on Quality Variability of 'Corsican Clementine'
J. Bouffin, J.M. Gandoin, and V. Paolacci [pg. 582]

Effect of Packing and Chemical Treatment on Quality of Cold Stored Citrus Budwood
S.A. Carvalho, S. Romeiro, C. Aguillar- Vildoso, and S. Blumer [pg. 582]

Cuban Certification Program for Production of Healthy Propagation Material
J. Cueto, J. Mulet, A. Correa, and M. del C. Pérez [pg. 582]

Organic Citrus Management Strategy in Cuba
Gladys del Vallín, Mirtha Borges, Magda Montes, Arnaldo Correa, Rafael Martínez Viera, and María Julia García [pg. 582]

Problems and Solutions for Navel Orange Production in China
Qiu Dongliang, Pan Dongming, and Liu Xinghui [pg. 582]

The Effect of Application of 10Different Citrus CVP Pollen Varieties on Fruit Set and Stability of 'Washington' Navel Orange in Northem Iran
Y. Ebrahimi and E. Jahanguirzadeh [pg. 582]

Parthenocarpy and the Effect of Isolation on Fruit Set, Size, and Seediness of 'Clementine' Selections in California
T.L. Kahn and O.I. Bier [pg. 583
Evaluation of the SIS-A New Frost Protection Method Applied in a Citrus Orchard
R. Guarga, G. Scaglione, E. Supino, and P. Mastrángelo [pg. 583]

Effects of Rooting Zone Restriction, Subsurface Drainage, and Plastic Film Mulch on Growth and Fruit Quality of young Satsuma Mandarin Trees
Y. Mizuta and N. Nisitani [pg. 583]

Use of Microbudding to Expedite Production of Experimental Citrus Hosts for Use in Biologicallndexing of Citrus Pathogens
F.M. Ochoa, M.G.H. Dekkers, M. Skaria, and R.F. Lee [pg. 583]

Performance of 26 Citrus Genotypes and Relatives as Ornamental Trees
S. Recupero, G. Russo, A. Caruso, and S. Intelisano [pg. 583]

Morphology and Quality of 'Felice' Lemon Fruits
Girolamo Russo [pg. 584]

Field Performance of Microbudded Citrus Trees in Texas
Mani Skaria and Zhang Tao [pg. 584]

Citrus Grove Floor Management Dynamics
D.P.H. Tucker, S. Futch, C.G. Erickson, and D. Delaney [pg. 584]

Formulating an Integrated Fruit Set Strategy for the 'Delta' Seedless Valencia
P.1.J. van Rensburg and Mariette Bruwer [pg. 584]

Effect of Planting Density on the Productivity of Three 'Clementine' Clones on Two Rootstocks in the Gharb Region of Morocco
M. Ait-Haddou, E.B. Nadori, A. Benazzouz, and M.Ouammou [pg. 584]

Study of the Tolerance of Three Citrus Rootstocks to Chloride and Sodium Ions
M. Ait-Haddou, A. Rochdi, A. Bousrhal, H. Benyahia, and A. Benazzouz [pg. 585]

Allelopathic Effect of Old-Orchard Soils on Growth of Citrus Rootstock Seedlings
R.K. Arora and M. Malathi Priva [pg. 585]

Applications of GPS/GIS to Evaluating Performance of Experimental Rootstocks in Commercial Citrus
Kim D. Bowman and Joseph Albano [pg. 585]

Rootstocks for Oranges in Southern Australian Sandy Loam Replant Soils
P.T. Gallasch [pg. 585]

Performance of 'Valencia' Sweet Orange Trees Grafted on Trifoliate Hybrids in São Paulo State, Brazil
J. Pompeu, Jr., F.F. Laranjeira, G.W. Muller, and M.C. Alves [pg. 585]

Behavior of 'Pera' Sweet Orange on Two Rootstocks and Three Irrigation Levels
J.A.A. Silva, L.C. Donadio, E.S. Stuchi, and O.R. Sempionato [pg. 586]

Behavior of 'Tahiti' Lime on Trifoliate Orange Flying Dragon Rootstock at Four Spacings in Bebedouro, Brazil
E.S. Stuchi, L.C. Donadio, and O.R. Sempionato [pg. 586]

Evaluation of 10 Rootstocks for 'Marsh' Seedless Grapefruit in São Paulo, Brazil
E.S. Stuchi, L.C. Donadio, and O.R. Sempionato [pg. 586]

Evaluation of the Behavior of Rangpur Lime [Citrus limonia (L.) Osb.] and Sunki Mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex. Tan.) Rootstocks in Four Different Substrates
D.P. Vitória, L.C. Donadio, O.R. Sempionato, and E.S. Stuchi [pg. 586]

The Effect of Rootstock and Nutrition on the Response of Grapefruit Trees to Salinity
Yoseph Levy, Eran Rave, and Josepha Lifshitz [pg. 586]

Green Manure and RecycJing of Nutrients in a 'Pera' Sweet Orange Orchard in Brazil
J.A.A. Silva, G.C. Vitti, L.C. Donadio, and O.R. Sempionato [pg. 587]

Effect of Different Soil MuJcheson Fruit Growth and Quality of Satsuma Mandarin
Qiuming Zhang and Yusheng Zheng [pg. 587]

Application Postemergence of Glyphosate and Carfentrazone-ethyl in Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.
L.L. Foloni, J.D. Rodrigues, and E.O. Ono [pg. 587]

Technical Development and Employment in Citriculture of São Paulo State, 1988-89 to 1997-98
A.A. Amaro, C.S.L. Baptistella, and M.C.M. Vicente [pg. 587]

Food Safety Systems in the Australian Citrus Industry
B. Beattie and L.J. Revelant [pg. 588]

Caliber Distribution of 'Washington' Navel Varieties with Four Trickle lrrigation Methods in Argentina
Pannunzio Alejandro and Génova Leopoldo [pg. 588]

Infrared Thermometry and Water Stress in Satsuma Mandarin
Kaori Sasaki, Hiroshi Sugaya, Hiroyasu Yoshikawa-Yarnanishi, Seiji Nakao, Yoshinori Hasegawa, Makoto Uchida, and Fumitaka Takishita [pg. 588]

Factors Affecting the Rooting Response of Sour Orange (Citrus aurantium L.) Cuttings
Mohammad E. Amiri [pg. 588]

Effects of Gibberellin and Auxin on the Behavior of Citrus Trees
P.R.C. Castro [pg. 588]

Influence of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic and Gibberellic Acids on Preharvest of Fruit Ripening of 'Hamlin' Sweet Orange
M.C.S. Domingues, E.O. Ono, and J.D.R. Rodrigues [pg. 588]

Endogenous Abscisic Acid Content in Leaves of 'Pera' Orange Trees lnfected with Xylellafastidiosa and Subjected to Three Cycles of Water Stress
M.M.A Gomes, C.L. Medina, A.M.M.A. Lagoa, and E.C. Machado [pg. 589]

Abscission of 'Honey' Orange Fruits by Application of Plant Growth Regulators
E.O. Ono, M.C.S. Domingues, and J.D.R. Rodrigues [pg. 589]

Natural Abscission Reduction of 'Honey' Orange Mature Fruits by Application of Auxin and Gibberellin
J.D.R. Rodrigues, M.C.S. Domingues, and E.O. Ono [pg. 589]

Timing and Rate of GA 3 Applications in Fall and Winter Influence Bloom Period, Flowering Intensity, and Final Crop in Several Florida Citrus Varieties
E.W. Stover, Y.J. Lin, S.M. Ciliento, and M.S. Burton [pg. 589]

Endogenous Hormones and Dwarfing of 'Lisbon' Lemon on Flying Dragon Trifoliate Orange Rootstock
C.J. Lovatt, I. Bertling, L.T. Xiao, Y.H. Hong, and W.H. Lin [pg. 589]

Seasonal Changes in Endogenous Auxin, Abscisic Acid, and Ethylene in Relation to the Response of Mature Fruit to CMN-Pyrazole in 'Valencia' Oranges
Rongcai Yuan, Ulrich Hartmond, and Walter J. Kender [pg. 590]

Effects of Gibberellic Acid Application Rates on Production and Quality of 'Natal' Sweet Orange in Brazil
J.A.A. Silva, E.S. Stuchi, O.R. Sempionato, and Luiz Carlos Donadio [pg. 590]


Symposium: Abscission

Basic Aspects of Hormonal Control of Abscission in Citrus
Raphael Goren, Moshe Huberman, Guang Yan Zhong, and Doron Holland [pg. 591]

Fruit Thinning for Enhanced Fruit Size: An Overview of Strategies
Etienne Rabe [pg. 595]

Citrus Fruitlet Abscission: Physiological Bases Supporting the "Competition Hypothesis"
Manuel Talon, Jalel Mehouachi, Domingo J. Iglesias, Francisco R. Tadeo, Ignacio Lliso, José L. Moya, Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas, and Eduardo Primo-Millo [pg. 602]

Hormonal Signals Regulating the Abscission Process in Citrus
Lorenzo Zacarias, Fernando Alférez, and Anthony D. Stead [pg. 605]

Isolation, Characterization, and Expression of Abscission-related Genes in Citrus
Jacqueline K. Burns, Covadonga R. Arias, Igor Kostenyuk, Masha Obraztsova, Luis Pozo, Zhencai Wu, and Guang Yan Zhong [pg. 609]

Symposium: Management of Citrus Leaf Gas Exchange and Carbohydrate Resources

Citrus Response to Radiation Load Reduction: Water Use, Photosynthesis, and Productivity
Shabtai Cohen, A. Grava, E. Raveh, and E.E. Goldschmidt [pg. 615]

Photoinhibition in Citrus
Michael M. Blanke [pg. 619]

Biotic and Abiotic Factors Influencing Carbon Exchange Rate in Citrus
Calogero Germana, Alberto Continella, and Vito Sardo [pg. 623]

Water Stress in Citrus and Its Alleviation
J.P. Bower [pg. 630]

Acclimation of Photosynthesis to Elevated CO 2 in Citrus Seedlings
John L. Jifon and Jim Syvertsen [pg. 634]

Abstracts: Management of Citrus Leaf Gas Exchange and Carbohydrate Resources [pg. 638]

Physiological and Molecular Regulation of Resource Allocation in Citrus
Karen E. Koch and Eliezer E. Goldschmidt [pg. 638]

Symposium: Citric Acid: From Molecular Biology to Fruit Quality

Consumer Product Quality Attributes and Contribution of Citric Acid in Juices
Renée Goodrich [pg. 639]

Effect of Environmental Conditions and Horticultural Practices on Citric Acid Content
Kenneth B. Marsh, Annette e. Richardson, and Yair Emer [pg. 640]

Citric Acid Metabolism: Aconitase Activity and Iron Homeostasis
Avi Sadka, Esther Daban, George Varghese, and Kenneth B. Marsh [pg. 644]

Citric Acid Content in Citrus Fruit: Inheritance and Genetic Manipulation
Mikeal L. Roose [pg. 647]

Citrate Uptake into Tonoplast Vesicles from Acid Lime Juice Cells
Ed Echeverria, Andreas Brune, and Pedro Gonzalez [pg. 649]

Posters: Physiology

Polyamines and Fruit Set and Early Development of 'Oronules' Mandarin
M. Arias, J. Carbonell, and M. Agustí [pg. 654]

Effects of Growth Stimulatory Substances on Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi from Millet Root Extracts on Aluminum Tolerance of Trifoliate Orange Rootstocks
André Freire Cruz, Isao Matsumoto, Kazuomi Kadoya, and Takaaki Ishii [pg. 657]

Leaves Are Not Necessary for Citrus Floral Induction
Thomas L. Davenport [pg. 660]

Molecular Regulation of Ethylene Biosynthesis in Citrus Fruit
Ehud Katz, David Weiss, Joseph Riov, and Eliezer E. Goldschmidt [pg. 662]

Sucrose Availability Limits Vegetative and Reproductive Growth of Citrus
D.J. Iglesias, F.R. Tadeo, J. Mehouachi, R. Bono, E. Primo-Millo, and M. Talon [pg. 663]

SPAD as an Indicator of Nitrogen Status in Citrus
F. lntrigliolo, A. Giuffrida, P. Rapisarda, M.L. Calabretta, and G. Roccuzzo [pg. 665]

EcoLyst™: A New Plant Growth Regulator for Sweet Orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.]
J.H. Keithly, T.A. Taggart, and C.A. Campbell [pg. 668]

Induction of Phenylalanine Arnmonia Lyase Gene during Abscission in Citrus sinensis and Citrus madurensis
Igor Kostenyuk, Jacqueline Burns, and Jerzy Zo [pg. 670]

The H +Translocating Vacuolar Pyrophosphatase in Acidless Citrus Cultivars
Kenneth B. Marsh, Yair Erner, Pedro G. Gonzalez, and Ed Echeverria [pg. 672]

Growth Response of Early-rnaturing Satsuma Mandarin to Diurnal Ranges of Temperature and Enhanced CO2
D.K. Moon, S.M. Jwa, and S.B. Kang [pg. 674]

Characterization of Citrus Pectin and Inhibition of the Fibroblast Growth Factor Signal Transduction Process
Yan Liu, Wallace L. McKeehan, Bhimanagouda S. Patil, Hassan Ahmad, Yongde Luo, Duane T. Gardiner, and Richard Gunasekera[pg. 676]

Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Blood Oranges
G. Reforgiato Recupero, M.P. Russo, P. Rapisarda, M. La Rosa, M. Guardo, A.R. Lo Piero, and G. Petrone [pg. 681]

The Regulation of PPi-Phosphofructokinase (PFP) during Citrus Fruit Development
Ran Kapri, Avi Sadka, Raphael Goren, and Uri Zeavi [pg. 683]

Dwarfing Mechanisms of Citrus Rootstocks: Hormonal, Nutritional, and Developmental Effects Induced by the Forner-Alcaide 418 Hybrid
I. Lliso, J.B. Forner, R. Bono, and M. Talón [pg. 685]

Salt Tolerance in Citrus is Determined by Morphological, Physiological, and Phenological Factors: Differences between Carrizo Citrange and Cleopatra Mandarin Rootstocks
J.L. Moya, F.R. Tadeo, F. Legaz, E. Primo-Millo, and M. Talón [pg. 687]

Expression of Polygalacturonase, ¡l-Galactosidase, Chitinase, β-1,3-Glucanase and Expansin during Mature Fruit Abscission of 'Valencia' Orange
Zhencai Wu and Jacqueline K. Burns [pg. 689]

Potassium-deficient Citrus Rootstocks Accumulate Arginine, Proline, and Putrescine
Yusheng Zheng and Carol J. Lovatt [pg. 691]

Carbohydrate and Vascular Bundle Effects on Citrus Fruit Set
Y. Erner, B. Artzi, E. Tagari, F. Shiea, and M. Hamou [pg. 693]

Abstracts: Physiology [pg. 699-702]

Differences in Healthy and Declined Kinnow Mandarin Trees: Carbohydrate and Protein Content and Some Physiological Aspects
A.D. Huchche, R.K. Arora, and S. Siddiqui [pg. 699]

Effect of Carbon Dioxide in Budwood Production of Different Citrus Varieties under Screenhouse
S.A. Carvalho, M. Zanetti, M.N. Daarnen, and C.L. Medina [pg. 699]

Effects of Salinity on Yield, Fruit, and Vegetative Growth of 'Star Ruby' Grapefruit
I. Porras Castillo, M. Sánchez Baños, A. García Lidón, P. Botía Ordaz, A. Conesa, A. Martínez, F. García-Sánchez, and V. Martínez[pg. 699]

Response of Satsuma Mandarin to Midwinter Defoliation
B. Ebel, M. Nesbitt, D. Findley, B. Wilkins, D. Himelrick, and S. Burchett [pg. 699]

Determination of Biochemical Factors Involved in Carbon Sink Strength and Soluble Solids Accumulation in Citrus
B.R. Hockema and E.J. Echeverria [pg. 699]

Comparison of Pistil Protein Expression between Self-compatible and -incompatible Citrus Cultivars
T. Kuniga, R. Matsumoto, and M. Yamamoto [pg. 700]

Gas Exchanges and Water Relations of 'Pera' Orange Tree Infected with Xylellafastidiosa and Submitted to Successive Water Stress
C.L. Medina, E.C. Machado, M.M.A. Gomes, A.M.M.A. Lagóa, and M.A. Machado [pg. 700]

Physiological Parameters, Virtual Lesion Size, and Severity of Citrus Variegated Chlorosis in Sweet Orange under Different Atmospheric Conditions
C.L. Medina, R.P. Souza, A.C. Oliveira, E.C. Machado, and M.A. Machado [pg. 700]

Cytochrome P450s Are Expressed during Abscission of Valencia Fruit
Maria Obraztsova, Zhencai Wu, and Jackie Burns [pg. [pg. 700]

Sap Flow Rates and Stomatal Conductance of Sweet Orange 'Pera' Infected by Xylellafastidiosa
R.F. Oliveira, E.C. Machado, F.R. Marin, and C.L. Medina [pg. 701]

Determination and Remediation of the Factors Causing Budbreak and Growth Problems in California Citrus Nurseries
T.E. Williams and M.L. Roose [pg. 701]


Symposium: Global Citrus IPM: Changing Trends in Arthropod Pest Management

An Industry Perspective on Worldwide Citrus IPM for the Future
John B. Taylor, Jr. [pg. 723]

Citrus IPM in Southern Africa: Its Similarity to Other Citrus-producing Countries of the Afro-Mediterranean Region
Tim G. Grout [pg. 725]

Citrus IPM in California: Regional Differences and Their Effects on Arthropod Management in the Millennium
Elizabeth E. Grafton-Cardwell [pg. 729]

Soil Arthropod Pest Management for Citrus: Future Solutions to a Growing Problem
C.W. McCoy, R.J. Stuart, L.W. Duncan, J.H. Graham, and H.N. Nigg [pg. 733]

Abstracts: Global Citrus IPM: Changing Trends in Arthropod Pest Management [pg. 736]

Exotic Pests Affecting California Citrus: A Global Problem with Global Solutions
J.G. Morse [pg. 736]

Citrus IPM in Brazil: Recent Advances and Future Challenges for an Expanding Citrus Industry
C. Omoto and J.R.P. Parra [pg. 736]

Symposium: Phytophagous Mite Problems on Citrus

A Reconsideration of the Economic Impact of the Citrus Bud Mite on Value of Southern California Lemon Crops
J. Daniel Hare [pg. 737]

Integrated Mite Control on Florida Citrus
C.C. Childers [pg. 740]

Tydeidae (Acari: Prostigmata) on Florida Citrus
H. Aguilar and C.C. Childers [pg. 751]

Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae) Research Status on Citrus
J.E. Peña, R. Ochoa, and E. Erbe [pg. 754]

Mite Problems on Citrus and Control Strategies in Israel
Eric Palevsky, Yael Argov, Yoel Drishpoun, Carl C. Childers, and U. Gerson [pg. 760]

Managing Mites on Citrus in Africa
Tim G. Grout [pg. 764]

Virus-Brevipalpus-Plant Relationships of the Citrus Leprosis Pathosystem
José Carlos Verle Rodrigues and Marcos Antonio Machado [pg. 768]

Abstracts: Phytophagous Mite Problems on Citrus [pg. 771]

Managementof Brevipalpusphoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) Resistance to Acaricides in Brazilian Citrus
C. Omoto, E.B. Alves, R.H. Konno, and F.J. Campos [pg. 771]

Symposium: Parasitoidsof Citrus lnsects

Scientific, Social, Political, and Ethical Issues for Biological Control in Citrus in the New Millennium
Marjorie A. Hoy [pg. 772]

Mymarid Parasitoids of the Glassy-winged Sharpshooter in Southern California Citrus
P.A. Phillips [pg. 775]

Biology and Biocontrol of the Medfly Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha tryoni Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae)
Serge Quilici, Béatrice Hurtrel, and Frédéric Gourdon [pg. 777]

Development of Parasitism-related Intervention Thresholds for the Management of California Red Scale in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa
Sean Moore, Garth Richards, Jeremy Fourie, and Tony Ware [pg. 781]

Natural Enemies of the Weevil Diaprepes abbreviates (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a Serious Pest of Citrus in Florida
Jorge E. Peña, D.G. Hall, and C.W. McCoy [pg. 785]

Symposium: Non-Target Effects of Pesticides on Biocontrol Agents of lmportance on Citrus

Concepts and Experiences of the IOBCIWPRS Working Group, Pesticides, and Beneficial Organisms
H. Vogt [pg. 789]

Conceptual Framework for Assessing Non-Target Effects of Pesticides on Arthropod Natural Enemies
Marjorie A. Hoy [pg. 792]

The Development of a Non-Target Evaluation System for Southern African Citrus
V. Hattingh, A.B. Ware, and T.G. Grout [pg. 795]

Pesticides and Biocontrol in Citrus in Australia
Daniel Smith and Kirstine M. Smith [pg. 798]

The History of Integrated Pest Management of Citrus in California
Joseph G. Morse and Robert F. Luck [pg. 805]

The Non-target Effect of Some Agrochemical Pesticides on the Chalcid Biocontrol Agent Aphytis lingnanensis
Anthony B. Ware and Vaughan Hattingh [pg. 808]

Abstracts: Non-Target Effects of Pesticides on Biocontrol Agents of Importance on Citrus [pg. 811]

Side-effects of Pesticides on Selected Natural Enemies Occurring in Citrus in Spain
J.A. Jacas Miret and F. Garcia-Mari [pg. 811]

Symposium: Nematode Parasites of Citrus

Root-knot Nematodes as Parasites of Citrus
N. Vovlas and R.N. Inserra [pg. 812]

Evaluating Resistance to Tylenchulus semipenetrans in Hybrid Citrus Rootstocks in Spain
S. Verdejo-Lucas, F.J. Sorribas, J.B. Forner, A. Alcaide, C. Ornat, and M. Galeano [pg. 818]

Citrus Nematode IPM in Southern Africa
H.F. le Roux, M.C. Pretorius, and L. Huisman [pg. 823]

Abstracts: Nematode Parasites of Citrus [pg. 828]

Comparison of the Phylogeny and Taxonomic Status of Burrowing and Lesion Nematodes That Parasitize Citrus
D.T. Kaplan, L.W. Duncan, and R.N. Inserra [pg. 828]

Competition between Nematode and Fungal Pathogens in the Citrus Root Cortex
Fahiem El-Borai Kora [pg. 828]

Posters: Citrus Leafminer

Biological Control of Phyllocnistis citrella in Israel
Yael Argov [pg. 829]

Establishment and Dispersal of Citrus Leafminer Parasitoid Ageniaspis citricola in Corrientes, Argentina
Sara Cáceres [pg. 832]

The Citrus Leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and Its Native Parasitoids in Corrientes, Argentina
Sara Cáceres [pg. 834]

Management of Citrus Leafrniner on Texas Citrus
J. Victor French and Jesusa e. Legaspi [pg. 836]

Insecticide Mineral Oils for Control of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidioptera: Gracillaridae) and Other Summer Pests in an Integrated Pest Management Program in Citrus Groves
M.T. Martinez-Ferrer,J.M. Fibla, J.M Campos, E. Beltran, J.L. Ripollés Molés, E. Martinavarro, and S.A Avda. del Grao [pg. 837]

Studies on Annual Population Dynamics and Damage Caused by the Citrus Leafminer in the Souss Area of Morocco
A. Mazih and M.S. Chitoukli [pg. 839]

Posters: Diaprepes abbreviatus

Ants as Predators of the Root Weevil Diaprepes abbreviates (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Florida Citrus
Robin J. Stuart, lan W. Jackson, and Clayton W. McCoy [pg. 844]

Posters: Fruit Flies

Novel Chemical Approaches for the Control of Fruit Flies in Citrus Orchards
D.S. Moreno, R.L. Mangan, D.L. Harris, and R.E. Burns [pg. 846]

Cold Treatment Quarantine of South American Fruit Fly
Graciela Putruele and Natalia Petit Marty [pg. 848]

Posters: IPM

Implementation of IPM on Citrus in the East Mediterranean Region of Turkey
H. Pala, L.B. Erkilic,A Günes, A.N. Erdem, and M. Oksar [pg. 850]

Postharvest Disinfestation of Surface-dwelling Pests with an Alkane
Peter Taverner, Peter Bailey, and Nancy Cunningham [pg. 852]

Use of Insecticides for Control of Linepithema humile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Sicilian Citrus: Efficacy and Impact on Ant Populations
R. Tumminelli, F. Saraceno, M. Lonzi, M. Ragaglia, and C. Pedrotti [pg. 854]

Posters: Psyllids, Sharpshooters, and Aphids

Use of Insecticides for Control of Aonidiella aurantii (Homoptera: Diaspididae) in Sicilian Citrus: Efficacy and Selectivity
F. Conti, R. Tumminelli, F. Saraceno, R. Fisicaro, C. Amico, A. Mazzone, and C. Pedrotti [pg. 855]

Inventory of Natural Enemies of Diaphorina citri (Homoptera: Psyllidae) in Cuba
Caridad González, Mirta Borges, Doris Hemández, and Jorge Rodríguez [pg. 859]

Effect of Different-size Yellow Sticky Traps on the Capture of Sharpshooter Vectors of CVC Disease and Coccinellidae in a Citrus Orchard
Wilson I. Maruyama, Luciana C. Toscano, and José C. Barbosa [pg. 860]

Aphytis melinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) Augmentation in Eastem Sicily Citrus Orchards to Suppress Aonidiella aurantii (Homoptera: Diaspididae)
R. Tumrninelli, F. Conti, F. Saraceno, E. Raciti, M. Lonzi, and C. Pedrotti [pg. 862]

The Effect of CO2 Exposure and Food Availability on Aphytis Survival
A.B. Ware and J.-H. Daneel [pg. 867]

Posters: Other Insect Pests

The Orchid Thrips in Israel
Yael Argov [pg. 869]

Managing Citrus Thrips in Eastern Sicily
F. Conti, R. Tumminelli, C. Amico, R. Fisicaro, E. Raciti, M. Lonzi, C. Frittitta, G. Perrotta, R. Marullo, and G. Siscaro [pg. [pg. 871]

Population Dynamics of Planococcus citri (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in Citrus Groves in Spain
M.T. Martinez-Ferrer,F. Garcia-Marí, J.L. Ripollés Molés, E. Martinavarro, and S.A. Avda [pg. 875]

Abstracts: Entomology and Nematology [pg. 877-882]

Rearing Method and Biology of Citrus Leafrniner, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in Laboratory Conditions
M. Borges, C. González, D. Hemández, J.L. Rodríguez, and R.I.Cabrera [pg. 877]

Citrus Leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), Damage in Mature Citrus Groves in Valencia, Spain
F. García-Marí, C. Granda, M. Juan, D. Alonso, S. Zaragoza, A. Alonso, J.M. Rodríguez, V. Almela, J. Costa-Comelles, and M. Agustí [pg. 877]

Importarían and Establishment of Exotic Parasitoids for the Biological Control of the Citrus Leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in Spanish Citrus Orchards
F. García-Marí, R. Vercher, J. Costa-Comelles, C. Granda, C. Marzal, C. Alfaro, D. Castrillón, V. Bueno, and M. Villalba [pg. 877]

Citrus Leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella, Biological Control in the Cuban Citrus Industry
C. González, M. Borges, O. Castro, D. Hemández, J.L. Rodríguez, and R.I. Cabrera [pg. 877]

Ageniaspis citricola in Brazil: An Overview at Two Years after Its Introduction
J.R.P. Parra, M.C.M. Chagas, P. Milano, A.L.G.C. Parra, A.M. Nascimento, and P.T. Yamamoto [pg. 877]

Effect of Different Imidacloprid Applications on Citrus Leafminer Control
V.A. Rodríguez, S.M. Mazza, and P. Gauna [pg. 878]

Observations on Diaprepes abbreviatus
Faruk Ghumra and Felipe Méndez [pg. 878]

A Particle Film Deters Oviposition by the Diaprepes Root Weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
S.L. Lapointe [pg. 878]

Infection of the Diaprepes Root Weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by an Iridovirus
S.L. Lapointe, W.B. Hunter, and C.J. Funk [pg. 878]

Parasitism and Persistence in the Field of Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Other Natural Enemies of the Larvae of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
C.W. McCoy, D.I. Shapiro, and L.W. Duncan [pg. 878]

Potential for Bacillus thuringiensis as a Biological Control Agent against Larvae of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Infesting Florida Citrus
A.A. Weathersbee III, Y.Q. Tang, H. Doostdar, and R.T. Mayer [pg. 879]

Fruit Fly Infestation in Citrus Cultivated in the State of São Paulo, Brazil
A. Raga, D.A.O. Prestes, M.F. Souza Filho, M.E. Sato, R.C. Siloto, and R.A. Zucchí [pg. 879]

Recent Developments in Fruit Fly Monitoring and Control in Southern Africa
C.H Buitendag, W. Naudé, and A.B. Ware [pg. 879]

Citrus IPM and Monitoring Systems in the Souss Valley of Morocco
A. Mazih and M.S. Chitoukli [pg. 879]

Implementation of IPM on Citrus in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey
H. Pala, L.B. Erkilic, A. Günes, A.N. Erdem, and M.Oksar [pg. 879]

Citrus IPM in Chile
R. Ripa, F. Rodríguez, S. Rojas, P. Larral, R. Luck, and M. Rust [pg. 880]

Use of Detergent against the Woolly Whitefly, Aleurothrixus Floccosus, and Citrus Red Mite, Panonychus citri
R. Ripa, F. Rodríguez, P. Larral, and R. Luck [pg. 880]

Evaluation of Baits against Linepithema humile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Citrus Orchards
F.P. Rodríguez, R. Ripa, P. Larral, and M. Rust [pg. 880]

Effects of lnsecticides and Fungicides on Predaceous Mites of the Families Phytoseiidae and Stigmaeidae on Citrus
M.E. Sato, A. Raga, L.C. Cerávolo, M.F. Souza Filho, A.C. Rossi, and G.J. de Moraes [pg. 880]

Mass Production of Coccus sp. and Saissetia sp. and Their Parasitoids
L.D. Forster, R.F. Luck, P.G. Pacheco, and A.P. Flores [pg. 880]

Implementation of IPM at the Citrus Farm Level in Morocco: The Case of California Red Scale (Aonidiella aurantii)
A. Hanafi and A. Boucaid [pg. 881]

Activity of Sugar Esters to Asiatic Citrus Psyllid (AsCP)
C.L. McKenzie and G.J. Puterka [pg. 881]

Diversity of Leafhoppers in Citrus Orchards in the State of Parana, Brazil
A.M. Meneguim and R.P. Leite Jr. [pg. 881]

Population Dynarnics of Sharpshooter Vectors of Xylella fastidiosa in Sweet Orange Orchards of São Paulo State
S.R. Roberto, P.T. Yamamoto, and A.C. Busoli [pg. 881]

Effect of Neem Extract on the Brown Citrus Aphid, Toxoptera citricida, and Its Parasitoid, Lysiphlebus testaceipes
Y.Q. Tang, A.A0 Weathersbee III, and R.T. Mayer [pg. 882]

Population Dynamics of Planococcus citri Risso (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in Citrus Groves in Spain
M.T. Martinez-Ferrer, F. Garcia-Marí, J.L. Ripollés Molés, E. Martinavarro, and S.A. Avda [pg. [pg. 882]


Symposium: Citrus Canker Eradication Programs in Florida and Brazil: Limitations and Perspectives

The Citrus Canker Epidernic in Florida-Dynarnics and Future Prognosis
Tim R. Gottwald, James H. Graham, Xiaoan Sun, and Tim Riley [pg. 883]

Surviving with Citrus Canker in Brazil
Rui P. Leite, Jr. [pg. 890]

lntegrating the Scientific Perspective into the Florida Citrus Canker Efforts in Florida
T.S. Schubert, X. Sun, and W.N. Dixon [pg. 897]

Abstracts: Citrus Canker Eradication Programs in Florida and Brazil: Limitations and Perspectives [pg. 901]

The Molecular Mechanism of Citrus Canker Pathogenicity and a Gene Engineering Approach to Control
D.W. Gabriel, Y.P. Duane, and C. Ramadugu [pg. 901]

Symposium: Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC) Brazil: Present and Future

Intensity of Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC) in Commercial Orange Groves in the State of São Paulo and Southern Triángulo Mineiro
Antonio J. Ayres, Nelson Gimenes-Fernandes, and José C. Barbosa [pg. 902]

Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Citrus Variegated Chlorosis in Brazil
Francisco F. Laranjeira, Tim R. Gottwald, Richard D. Berger, Lilian Amorim, and Armando Bergarnin Filho [pg. 906]

Abstracts: Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC) Brazil: Present and Future [pg. 910-911]

Management Strategies for Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC)
Vanderlei Rodas, Marcos Pozzan, Julia Beretta, and Ken Derrick [pg. 910]

Transmission of Xylellafastidiosa in Citrus and Ecology of Its Sharpshooter Vectors
J.R.S. Lopes [pg. 910]

Plants with CVC-A Physiological Overview
G. Habermann, J.D. Rodrigues, M.M.A. Gomes, C.L. Medina, and E.C. Machado [pg. 910]

Development of Transgenic Resistance Against Xylella fastidiosa
R. Harakava, C.L. Niblett, R.F. Lee, and D.W. Gabriel [pg. 910]

Genome and Functional Genornics of Xylella fastidiosa
M.A. Machado, M. Cristofani, A.A. de Souza, M.A. Takita, E.C. Localli, and H.D. Coletta Filho [pg. 911]

Symposium: New Perspectives of Citrus Root Health

A Cost-benefit Approach to Understanding Citrus Root Life Span
D.M. Eissenstat [pg. 912]

Hydraulic Lift and the Fate of Subterranean Organisms in Dry Soil in the Citrus Rhizosphere
L.W. Duncan, D.C. Dunn, and J.D. Zellers [pg. 918]

Costs and Benefits of Citrus Roots in Relation to Activity of Root Pathogens
J.H. Graham and K.R. Kosola [pg. [pg. 921]

Physiologicallnteractions of Phosphorous Acid and Control of Root Pathogens
H.F.le Roux [pg. 926]

Phytophthora Foot and Root Rots of Citrus Trees in Seasonally Dry Subtropical Areas of the State of São Paulo, Brazil
E. Feichtenberger [pg. 929]

Prospects for Biological Control of Phytophthora Root Rot of Citrus
J.A Menge and K. Steddom [pg. 932]

Symposium: New Vector Transmitted Disease Threats from Middle/Near East

Present Status of Lime and lnvestigations on the Witches' Broom Disease of Lime in Oman
Iqrar A. Khan [pg. 935]

Etiology of Witches' Broom Disease of Lime (WBDL)
Monique Gamier and Joseph M. Bové [pg. 939]

Essential Ingredients for a Successful Certification Program for Citrus
C.N. Roistacher [pg. 942]

Value of Clean Stock Programs and Quarantine Measures for Citrus
Richard F. Lee [pg. 948]

Identification and Use of Genetic Resistance and Tolerance to New Diseases
Mikeal L. Roose [pg. 952]

Development of lmproved Acid Citrus Fruit Cultivars via Interploid Hybridization
Z. Viloria, J.L. Chandler, and J.W. Grosser [pg. 955]

Symposium: Recent Advances on the Major Virus Diseases of Citrus: Tristeza and Psorosis

Recent Advances on the Major Virus Diseases of Citrus: Tristeza and Psorosis-Introduction
J. Navas-Castillo [pg. 959]

Citrus Tristeza Virus: The Continuing Problem
S.M. Garnsey [pg. 960]

Citrus Tristeza Virus Biology Revisited: Quick Decline and Seedling Yellows- The Cost of Sour Orange Resistance Gene(s)
M. Bar-Joseph, X. Che, D. Piestun, O. Botuman, R. Gofman, Y. Ben Shalom, G. Yang, and M. Mawassi [pg. 963]

Biological and Molecular Variability of Citrus Tristeza Virus: Implications for Its Control
Pedro Moreno, Luis Rubio, Jesús Navas-Castillo, M. Carmen Vives, M. Angeles Ayllón, M. Remei Albiach-Martí, Adrián Sambade, Gioconda V. Narváez, and José GuerriRicardo Flores [pg. 966]

Development of a Genetic System of the Largest Known Plant Virus, Citrus Tristeza Virus
W.O. Dawson, T. Satyanarayana, S. Gowda, M. Mawassi, M.R. Albiach-Martí, M.A. Ayllón, and S. Rabindran [pg. 969]

Toward Cloning the Citrus Tristeza Virus Resistance Gene(s)
Mikeal L. Roose, Xinrong Ve, Zhong-Nan Yang, and T. Erik Mirkov [pg. 972]

A Century of Citrus Psorosis Research: From Scaly Bark to the Purification of Virions with a Novel Filamentous Morphology
K.S. Derrick and G.A. Barthe [pg. 974]

Citrus Psorosis Ophiovirus: Genome Organization and Detection
M.L. García, M.E. Sánchez de la Torre, G.G. Legarreta, G. Naum, O. Riva, L.R. Jones, and O. Grau [pg. 976]

Posters: Pathology

Witches' Broom Disease of Lime in Oman: Economics Analysis
Ahmed Salim Al-Marshudi [pg. 978]

Mode of Action of Candida oleophila in the Biosynthesis of β-1,3-Glucanase on Hyphae of Botrytis cinerea
Giovanni Arras and Mario Agabbio [pg. 981]

Occurrence of Citrus Scab Strains Resistant to Benzimidazoles in the Northern Part of Uruguay and the Evaluation of New Fungicides to Control this Disease
Roberto Piacentini Bernal [pg. 984]

Period of Fruit Susceptibility of 'Owari' Satsuma Mandarin to Scab
Roberto Piacentini Bemal [pg. 987]

Some Aspects ofthe Epiderniology ofCitrus Scab in 'Owari' Satsuma Mandarin and Valencia Orange
Roberto Piacentini Bernal [pg. 990]

Survey of Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) Isolates and Aphid Vector Incidence in Northern Chile
X.A. Besoain, M. Valenzuela, M. Castro, C. Canales, M.C. Simpson, and L. Torelli [pg. 994]

Comparison of Decline Reaction from Citrus Tristeza Virus Infection in Trees on Sour Orange Hybrid Rootstocks
Kim D. Bowman and Steve M. Garnsey [pg. 996]

Strategies under Development by the Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira-IAC to Supply Basic Material for Production of Healthy Citrus Nursery Trees in São Paulo State, Brazil
Sérgio Alves Carvalho, Marcos Antonio Machado, and Gerd Walter Müller [pg. 998]

Cracked Spot, a New Symptom of Citrus Black Spot in Brazil
Antonio de Goes, Ricardo Braga Baldassari, Eduardo Feichtenberger, Carlos Ivan Aguilar-Vildoso, and Marcel Bellato Spósito [pg. 1001]

Effect of Ferbam Alone or in Combination with Benomyl for the Control of Citrus Postbloom Fruit Drop
Antonio de Goes, Katia Cristina Kupper Moretto, and Carlos van Parys de Wit [pg. 1003]

Behavior of Imazalil-resistant Strains of Penicillium digitatum Sacc. against Fungicides Currently Employed in Citrus Packinghouses and Alternative Fungicides in Tucumán Province, Argentina
G.M. Fogliata, G.J. Torres Leal, and L.D. Ploper [pg. 1006]

Alternatives to the Exclusive Use of Benzimidazoles for Controlling Citrus Black Spot in Entre Ríos, Argentina
S.M. Garrán and J.A. Mousqués [pg. 1009]

Incidence of Wind Scar Effects on External Quality of Satsuma Mandarin Fruit in Entre Ríos, Argentina
S.M. Garrán and J.A. Mousqués [pg. 1012]

Establishment of Two New Vectors of Citrus Pathogens in Florida
Susan E. Halbert, c.i, Niblett, K.L. Manjunath, Richard F. Lee, and Lawrence G. Brown [pg. 1016]

Characterization of Citrus Tristeza Closterovirus Isolates from Cuba and Production of Citrus Transgenic Plants
Lisset Herrera, Lourdes Yabor, Raixa Llauger, Lochy Batista, Inés Peña, Rudy Peral, Pedro Oramas, and Carlos Borroto [pg. 1018]

Detection of Phytophthora sp., P. nicotianae, and P. citrophthora from Roots and Rhizosphere of Citrus Plants using PCR and Scorpion-PCR
Antonio Ippolito, Leonardo Schena, Franco Nigro, and Mario Salerno [pg. 1020]

Effectiveness of Metalaxyl-M against Phytophthora Root Rot of Citrus
Antonio Ippolito, Franco Nigro, Angela Ligorio, Leonardo Schena, and Vito Campanella, and Riccardo Liguori [pg. 1023]

Sustainable Citriculture using Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi: Introduction of New Soil Management Techniques
Takaaki Ishii, Sunao Kirino, and Kazuorni Kadoya [pg. 1026]

Effects of Alginate Oligosaccharide and Polyamines on Hyphal Growth of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Their Infectivity of Citrus Roots
Takaaki Ishii, Hideo Kitabayashi, Jiro Aikawa, Isao Matsurnoto, Kazuomi Kadoya, and Sunao Kirino [pg. 1030]

Shoot-tip Micro-grafting for Rescue or Therapy of Fieldgrown Citrus Germplasm Accessions
Robert R. Krueger, Polly M. Ballance, Tracy L. Kahn, Ottillia J. Bier, David J. Gumpf, and John A. Bash [pg. 1033]

Effect of Tangle Stock Ground Extracts on In Vitro Hyphal Growth of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Their In Vivo Infections of Citrus Roots
Kousaku Kuwada, Masaru Utamura, Itaru Matsushita, Takaaki Ishii, Isao Matsumoto, and Kazuomi Kadoya [pg. 1034]

Relationship between Presence of Citrus Psorosis Virus and Different Types of Bark-scaling in Citrus in Southern Italy
Matilde Tessitori, Giuliana Albanese, Rosa La Rosa, Robert G. Milne, and Antonino Catara [pg. 1038]

Detection of Imazalil-resistant Strains of Penicillium digitatum Sacc. in Citrus Packinghouses of Tucumán Province, Argentina
G.J. Torres Leal, G.M. Fogliata, and L.D. Ploper [pg. 1041]

Gradient of Distribution of Xylella fastidiosa within the Xylem of Citrus Leaves
Antonio Carlos de Oliveira, Camilo Lazaro Medina, Eduardo Caruso Machado, Aristides Novac Garcia, and Marcos Antonio Machado [pg. 1043]

The Effect of Citrus Tristeza Virus Mild Strain Cross-protection on the 'Marsh' Grapefruit Industry in South Africa
L.J. Marais and J.H.J. Breytenbach [pg. 1046]

Characteristics of Brown Heartwood Rot of Lemon Trees in Arizona
Michael E. Matheron, Donna M. Bigelow, and Martin Porchas [pg. 1048]

Susceptibility of Potential Lemon Rootstocks to Mal Secco Disease
Franco Nigro, Antonio Ippolito, and Mario Salemo [pg. 1049]

Postbloom Fruit Drop in Brazil and Florida: Occurrence and Control by Fungicides
N.A.R. Peres, N.L. Souza, and L.W. Timmer [pg. 1051]

Current Status of Viroid-caused Diseases in Cuba
R. Pérez, Juana M. Pérez, Karelia Velázquez, Nuria Duran-Vila, and D. Rodríguez [pg. 1053]

Yield Damage Associated with Citrus Leprosis on Sweet Oranges
José Carlos Verle Rodrigues, Neusa de Lima Nogueira, Gerd Walter Müller, and Marcos Antonio Machado [pg. 1055]

Fluorescence Direct Detection of Xylellafastidiosa Isolates
R.F. Travensolo and E.G.M. Lemos [pg. 1060

Abstracts: Pathology [pg 1062-1065]

Management of Witches' Broom Disease of Lime through Antibiotic Treatments
R.A. Al-Busaidi, M.O. El-Mardi, and M.L. Deadman [pg. 1062]

Role of Limonene on Infection by Penicil/ium digitatum on Incision of Lemon Fruit
Y. Arimoto and B.I. Yamaguchi Riken [pg. 1062]

A Propagation Method using Irnmature Citrus Tissue to Predict the Decline Potential of CTV Strains
Michael G. Bausher and Randall P. Niedz [pg. 1062]

Field Selection and Evaluation of Sweet Oranges for Resistance to Citrus Variegated Chlorosis
W.B. Li, W.D. Pria, Jr., and M.A. Mendes [pg. 1062]

Prevalenceof Tristeza, Exocortis,and Phytoplasmain Citrus Orchards of Maharashtra, India
D.K. Ghosh [pg. 1062]

Introduction of Foreign DNA into Citrus Strains of Xylella fastidiosa
Xiaoting Qin and John S. Hartung [pg. 1063]

Pathogenicity of Xylellafastidiosa ofCitrus Variegated Chlorosis in Coffee Plants
W.B. Li, W.D. Pria Jr., D.e. Teixeira, M.G. Costa, and V.S. Miranda [pg. 1063]

Molecular Characterization of Citrus Yellow Mosaic Virus
Qi Huang and John S. Hartung [pg. 1063]

Transmission of Citrus Tristeza Virus through Membrane-feeding
W.B. Hunter and S.M. Gamsey [pg. 1063]

Altemative Control of Citrus Postharvest Diseases
L. Korsten, E.S. de Jager, 1.Paul, J. Obagwu, and A. El-Ghaouth [pg. 1063]

Survey of Citrus Greening Disease in South Africa
L. Korsten, E. Juckers, and G.M. Swart [pg. 1064]

Citrus Varieties and Species Hosts of Xylella fastidiosa under Field Conditions
F.F. Laranjeira, J. Pompeu, Jr., R. Harakava, J.O. Figueiredo, S.A Carvalho, and H.D. Coletta Filho [pg. 1064]

Adaptation of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Citri Population to the Presence of Copper Compounds in Nature
D.A.M.F. Rinaldi and R.P. Leite, Jr. [pg. 1064]

Xylellafastidiosa in Sweet Orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osb.] Seeds and Its Transmission from Seeds to Seedlings
W.D. Pria Jr., W.B. Li, D.e. Teixeira, V.S. Miranda, C.F. Franco, and R.R. Palma [pg. 1064]

Detection of Xylella Fastidiosa ofCitrus Variegated Chlorosis in Sweet Orange Fruits by Polymerase Chain Reaction 
C.F. Franco, W.D. Pria, Jr., M.G. Costa, and W.B. Li]

Endogenous Abscisic Acid Content in Leaves of 'Pera' Orange Trees Infected with Xylella Fastidiosa and Subjected to Three Cycles of Water Stress
M.M.A. Gomes, C.L., Medina, A.M.M.A. Lagóa, E.C. Machado, and R.F. Oliveira [pg. 1065]

In Vivo Localization of the Hsp70 Protein Homolog (P65) in Citrus Tristeza Closterovirus Infected Plants
I.M. Rosales, K.L. Manjunath, R.F. Lee, and C.L. Niblett [pg. 1065]

Citrus Trees Produced by Nonconventional Budding and Their Infection by Xylellafastidiosa
A.B. Salibe, F.A.A. Mouráo Filho, and M.A. Machado [pg. 1065]

Reaction of Different Varieties and Species of Citrus to the Bacterium Xylella fastidiosa
A.B. Salibe, F.A.A. Mouráo Filho, F.F. Laranjeira, and M.A. Machado [pg. 1065]

Molecular Characterization from Cuban CVd III Citrus Viroid
K. Velázquez, N. Duran-Vila, J.M. Pérez, R. Pérez, I. Peña, and L. Batista [pg. 1065]


Symposium: lncreasing Fresh Citrus Consumption: Challenges and Opportunities

Worldwide Citrus Production and Consumption Trends in Relation to Other Fruits
Philip F. Lesser [pg. 1066]

Use of Health and Nutritional Information in Marketing Florida Citrus Products
Michael W. Sparks and Mohamed A. Ismail [pg. 1068]

Quality and Safety of Fresh and Minimally Processed Citrus Products
Steven Pao [pg. 1070]

Peeling Technology and Minimally Processed Citrus Products 
R.A. Baker [pg. 1073]

Automating Citrus Fruit Peeling 
Mohamed A. Ismail and Mark Thomas [pg. 1077]

Symposium: Citrus Peel Disorders

Ultrastructure Comparison of Postharvest Pitting, Chilling Injury, and Preharvest Physical Damage of White Grapefruit Peel
Peter D. Petracek and Craig Davis [pg. 1079]

Preharvest Factors Influencing Postharvest Peel Pitting of Citrus Fruits
H. Dou, P.D. Petracek, E. Stover, D. Calvert, and A.K. Alva [pg. 1084]

Prediction and Physiology of Creasing 
John P. Bower [pg. 1089]

Albedo Breakdown in California
Anwar Ali, Leslie L. Summers, Grant J. Klein, and Carol J. Lovatt [pg. 1090]

Chilling Injury in Citrus Fruit and Strategies for Amelioration
Eliahou Cohen, Yavin Shalom, and Boris Shapiro [pg. 1094]

Creasing in Australia: Causes and Control
M.T. Treeby, D.J. Milne, and R. Storey, K.B. Bevington, B.R. Loveys, and R. Hutton [pg. 1099]

Symposium: Linking the Citrus Fresh Fruit Marketplace with the Development of New Varieties (Abstracts) [pg. 1104-1105]

Global Produce Marketing Today and Tomorrow
Bruce T. Peterson Jr. [pg. 1104]

Marketing Branded Produce in a Consolidated Retail and Wholesale Environment
Fred Heptinstall [pg. 1104]

Will Florida Fresh Citrus Varieties be AcceptableTomorrow? 
Al Finch [pg. 1104]

A Domestic and International Perspective on the Marketing of Florida Fresh Citrus
Gregory P. Nelson [pg. 1104]

Worldwide Procurement and Marketing ofCitrus Fruit in England
Andrew Thomas [pg. 1104]

The Public's Perception of Genetically Modified Foods 
William K. Hallman [pg. 1104]

Patented Produce: A New Paradigm
David Marguleas [pg. 1104]

Insights on How to Test-market New Citrus Varieties
Jim Saunt [pg. [pg. 1105]

A South African View on Future Fresh Citrus Varieties and Their Marketing
Louis von Broembsen [pg. 1105]

Symposium: Citrus Regions ofthe Americas and Their Changing Role in a Global Market (Abstracts) [pg.1106]

Government Policies: Their Effects on Trade
Marta Bentancur [pg. 1106]

Citrus Production in Argentina: Development of New Markets in the Northern Hemisphere
Sebastian Torres Possee [pg. 1106]

Mexican Citrus Production: Current and Future Trends in Orange Production and Markets
Francisco Gomez [pg. 1106]

Citrus in Belize, Costa Rica, and Honduras: Del Oro's View on the Future of Citrus Production in Central America
Randolph I. (Randy) Fleming [pg. 1106]

Symposium: Mechanisms of Resistance against Pathogens in Citrus Fruits

Biotic and Abiotic Induction of Resistance Against Pathogens in Citrus Fruits
S. Ben Yehoshua, V. Rodov, B. Nafussi, J. Peretz, R. Porat, G. D'hallewin, and M. Schirra [pg. 1107]

Defensive Proteins in Grapefruit Flavedo
Greg McCollum [pg. 1113]

Involvement of Oil Glands in Pathogen Resistance of Citrus Fruit
Andreas Klieber, Toby Knight, and Shimshon Ben-Yehoshua [pg. 1117]

Abstracts: Mechanisms of Resistance against Pathogens in Citrus Fruits [pg. 1120]

A Heat Treatment That Induces Resistance to Penicillium digitatum Also Promotes Accumulation of Heat-shock, Chitinase, and β-1,3-glucanase Proteins in Grapefruit Flavedo
R. Porat, D. Pavoncello, S. Lurie, and S. Droby [pg. 1120]

Induction of Resistance to Postharvest Decay of Citrus Fruit by the Yeast Biocontrol Agent Candida oleophila
S. Droby, R. Porat, V. Vinocur, L. Cohen, B. Weiss, and A. Daus [pg. 1120]

Posters: Economics and Marketing

The Market for Tangerines in the United States of America: Present Situation and Medium-term Outlook
R. Server, J.F. Juliá, and F.J. Del Campo [pg. 1121]

A Study on the Economic Effects of Shipping Control for Citrus Farmers in Korea
Kyung-Taeg Kim [pg. 1123]

Sample Costs to Establish an Orange Orchard and Produce Oranges under Low Volume Irrigation in the San Joaquin Valley of California
N.V. O'Connell, M.W. Freeman, C.E. Kallsen, K.M. Klonsky, and P.J. Livingston [pg. 1125]

The Cuban Citrus Industry
María del C. Pérez, A. Correa, and P. Ruíz [pg. 1126]

Posters: Physiology Methods

Oleocellosis of Navel Oranges under the Microscope
T. Knight, A. Klieber, and M. Sedgley [pg. 1127]

Detection of Seeds in Mandarins using Magnetic Resonance
E. Moltó and J. Blasco [pg. 1129]

Postharvest Storage Effects on Grapefruit Functional Compounds
Bhimanagouda S. Patil, Kil Sun Yoo, and Leonard M. Pike [pg. 1131]

Biological Control of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum on Citrus Fruit with Pantoea agglomerans (CPA-2)
N. Teixidó, J. Usall,C. Nunes, L. Palou, and 1.Viñas, and J. Smilanick [pg. 1134]

Posters: Practical Application

Production of Fruit Free of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri in Selected Plots in Areas of Endemic Canker in Argentina
B.I. Canteros, M. Naranjo, and M. Rybak [pg. 1136]

Incidence of Cold Quarantine Treatments on Grapefruit Quality
G.A. Gastarninza, B.N. Carrizo, E. Willink, and G.J. Torres Leal [pg. 1138]

Effect of Cold Quarantine Treatments on Quality of Four Commercial Lemon Cultivars
G.J. Torres Leal, B.N. Carrizo, G.A. Gastarninza, and E. Willink [pg. 1141]

Postharvest Quality and Behavior of 'Interdonato' Lemons Under Chilling and Non-chilling Temperatures
I. Tayfun Agar [pg. 1144]

Induction of Grapefruit Resistance to Penicillium digitatum by Chemical, Physical, and Biological Elicitors
Ron Porat, Batia Weiss, Lea Cohen, Victor Vinokur, David Pavoncello, Avinoam Daus, and Sarnir Droby [pg. 1146]

Fruit Quality of Five 'Tarocco' Selections Grown in Italy
P. Rapisarda and G. Russo [pg. 1149]

Posters: Storage

Effect of Preharvest and Postharvest Applications of Ethephon on Degreening of 'Meyer' and 'Interdonato' Lemons
Makbule Gullu and I. Tayfun Agar [pg. 1154]

Storage Potential of Satsuma Mandarin Produced in Plastic Greenhouses
F. Ikeda, H. Abekawa, T. Baba, and K. Mita [pg. 1156]

Harvest Maturity, a Key Factor in Deterrnining the Quality of Controlled-atmosphere Stored Mandarins
Christian Larrigaudiere, Anna Bonet, and Joan Pons [pg. 1161]

Fruit Quality Changes and Granulation Development during On-tree and Cold Storage of Late Navel Oranges in Chile
J.E. Ortúzar, L. Barrales, P. Carmona, l. Peña, J.P. Zoffoli, G. Valdivieso, and J. Quinteros [pg. 1164]

Evaluation of Hot Water Treatments to Control Postharvest Green Mold in Organic Lemon Fruit
G. Lanza, E. di Martino Aleppo, M.e. Strano, and G. Reforgiato Recupero [pg. 1167]

Effect of Cold Storage on Four Grapefruit Cultivars
G. Russo, A.M. Rinaldi, M.G. Corona, L. Massignan, and R. Lovino [pg. 1169]

Abstracts: Postharvest Physiology [pg. 1171-1174]

Evolution and Future of the Valencia Fresh Citrus Futures Market
F.J. Del Campo [pg. 1171]

Optimal Efficiency through a New Technical-Organizational System for Raw Material Supply to Cuban Citrus Processing Plants
T. Castro-López, M.E. García, C.D. Sánchez, H. Diez, M. del C. Pérez, and Z.M. Acosta [pg. 1171]

Patented Produce: A New Paradigm
David Marguleas [pg. 1171]

Status and Perspectives of Citrus Producer Organizations in Italy
Alfonso S. Zarba [pg. 1171]

Purification and Characterization of β-Glucosidasefrom Citrus sinensis Fruit Tissue
R.G. Cameron, R.A. Baker, K. Grohmann, and I.Manthey [pg. 1171]

Determination of a Multiresidue Pesticide in Fresh Citrus Fruits
Florea Gazea and Giuseppe Cicciarello [pg. 1172]

Integration of Yeast Biocontrol Agents, Hot Water, and Food Additives for the Control of Postharvest Diseases of Citrus Fruit
A. Daus, B. Wiess, L. Cohen, A. Shachnai, R. Porat, and S. Droby [pg. 1172]

Composition and Upgrading of Citrus Peel Juice and Molasses
K. Grohmann, J.A. Manthey, R.G. Cameron, and B.S. Buslig [pg. 1172]

Sanitation Standards and Quality Assurance Systems in Citrus Packhouses
L. Korsten, E.E. Auret, and E.S. de Jager [pg. 1172]

Combination of HotWater and Sodium Carbonate Treatments to Control Green and Blue Molds on Mandarins
J. Usall, N. Teixidó, L. Palou, J. Pons, J. Muñoz, and I. Viñas [pg. 1172]

Factors Influencing Rind Breakdown of Clementine Mandarin Fruit
P.J.J. van Rensburg and Mariette Bruwer [pg. 1173]

Evaluation of Postharvest Quality of Afourer Mandarin Grafted onto Seven Rootstocks in Morocco
A. Ait-Oubahou, M. El-Otmani, R. Taraf, K. Meskine, B. Nadori, D. Ezzoubir, and M. Hanich [pg. 1173]

Reducing Postharvest Pitting of White Grapefruit using Vegetable Oils
Huating Dou [pg. 1173]

The Role of Surfactants in Postharvest Peel Disorders and Damage of Citrus Fruit
Huating Dou, Mark A. Ritenour, D. Frank Kelsey, and Mohamed A. Ismail [pg. 1173]

Combination of Hot Water and Sodium Carbonate Treatments to Control Green and Blue Molds on Mandarins
J. Usall, N. Teixidó, L. Palou, J. Pons, J. Muñoz, and I. Viñas [pg. 1174]


Symposium: New Citrus Products

Development of a Functional Beverage Based on Orange Juice
M. Filomena Valim, Elizeu A. Rossi, Rui S.F. Silva, and Dionisio Borsato [pg. 1175]

Process for the Recovery of Carotenoid Pigments from Red Grapefruit Juice
H.S. Lee [pg. 1177]

Processing and Quality of Kumquat-based Pie Filling
Yu P. Wei, James S.B. Wu, and Lin H.A. Ferng [pg. 1179]

Update on the Florida Citrus Solids Strategy
William S. Stinson, Santiago Barros, and William Widmer [pg. 1181]

Symposium: Human Health Benefits of Citrus

Enhancing Citrus Phytochemicals
Bhimanagouda S. Patil [pg. 1184]

Limonin 17-β-D-Glucopyranoside: Effects on Microorganisms Commonly Found in the Lower GI Tract
Edward G. Miller, Samuel E. Taylor, Charles W. Berry, Bhimanagouda S. Patil, Qingguo Tian, and Shin Hasegawa [pg. 1188]

Regulation of Cholesterol Metabolism by Citrus Juices, Flavonoids, and Limonoids
E.M. Kurowska, T.A. Vandenberg, J.A. Manthey, S. Hasegawa, and G. Manners [pg. 1192]

Citrus Limonoids: Potential Cancer Chemopreventative Agents
Gary D. Manners and Shin Hasegawa [pg. 1195]

Health Benefits of Folate in Orange Juice
W.W. Widmer, W.S. Stinson, and E.L. Moore [pg. 1198]

Abstracts: Human Health Benefits of Citrus [pg. 1201]

Anti-inflammatory Properties of Citrus Flavonoids
John A. Manthey, Karel Grohmann, and Carl L. Manthey [pg. 1201]

The Effectiveness ofCitrus Juice Components on the Inhibition of Human Breast Cancer Proliferation
N. Guthrie, T. Vandenberg, lA. Manthey, S. Hasegawa, and G. Manners [pg. 1201]

Symposium: Advances in Juice Processing Technology

The Use of Active Packaging to Improve Citrus Juice Quality
Joseph H. Hotchkiss and Nilda F.F. Soares [pg. 1202]

Influence of High Pressure Treatment on Storage Quality of Orange and Orange-Lemon-Carrot Mixed (OLC) Juices
Antal Bognar, Peter Butz, Avelina Fernández García, and Bemhard Tauscher [pg. 1206]

Advances in Citrus Extraction Systems
Roger Waters [pg. 1210]

Process Control s and the FMC Extraction System
Danny Milla [pg. 1214]

Abstracts: Advances in Juice Processing Technology [pg. 1216]

New Technologies in Citrus Processing: Improved Performance and Product Quality Using High Performance Centrifuges
S. Pecoroni [pg. 1216]

Improvements in Large Tank Storage Technology
Jeff Raasch [pg. 1216]

Symposium: New Analyses of Processed Citrus Products

Capillary Electrophoresis of Citrus Juices
Paul F. Cancalon [pg. 1217]

Advances in Multivaríate Analyses of Citrus Juices
Kevin L. Goodner, Randall G. Cameron, María 1.Jordán, and Philip E. Shaw [pg. 1224]

New Analytical Developments in Authenticity Testing of Fruit Juices
E. Jamin and G.G. Martin [pg. 1228]

An Improved Method for the Analysis of Folate in Citrus Juices
W.W. Widmer and C.A. Haun [pg. 1232]

Abstracts: New Analyses of Processed Citrus Products [pg. 1236]

Analytical Characteristics of Red Orange Juice NFC with Optimal Preservation of Color and Flavor
Stefano Gherardi [pg. 1236]

Sugar Alcohols in Orange Juices: Determination and Interpretation
Hans-Jurgen Hofsommer [pg. 1236]

The Use of Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry to Identify Aroma Active Component in Citrus Juices
Russell L. Rouseff, Jianming Lin, and Russell Bazemore [pg. 1236]

Posters: Processing/Food Science

Influence of Processing on Color Modification and Antioxidant Activity of Blood Orange Juice
E. Arena, B. Fallico, and E. Maccarone [pg. 1237]

Elements for the Design of a Standardized Citrus Sampling System for Processed Fruit
F. Henson, E.A. Roe, W.A. Miller, R.A. Gilbert, T.K. Das, and E. Lerin [pg. 1239]

Analysis of β-CryptoxanthinContent and lsolation of cDNAs Encoding Phytoene Synthase and B-Carotene Hydroxylase in Citrus
Kyong-Cheol Ko, Chan-ShickKim, and Doo-Khil Moon, In-Jung Kim, and Won-Il Chung [pg. 1240]

New Process for Obtaining Citrus Oil Enriched in Oxygenated Compounds
Manuel B. Marti Klyver and María del Rocio Cuenca [pg. 1242]

The Extent of Govemment Protection of Citrus Production in the European Union
Giuseppe Cucuzza and Antonio M.O. Nucifora [pg. 1244]

Impact of the FlipGate Sampler on the Florida Citrus Processing Industry
E.A. Roe, R.A. Gilbert, W.A. Miller, T.K. Das, and E.Lerin [pg. 1247]

Recent Trends in the Italian Citrus Industry
Alessandro Scuderi and Carmelo Sturiale [pg. 1250]

Improved Early Season Sweet Orange Juice Quality Characteristics Offered by Early Maturing Cultivars
T.A. Taggart and J.H. Keithly [pg. 1253]

Early Maturing 'Valencia' Sweet Orange Cultivars Offer Improved Juice Quality Characteristics Earlier in the Harvesting Season
T.A. Taggart, J.H. Keithly, and S.R. Rizer [pg. 1255]

Antioxidant Capacity of the Water-soluble Fraction of High Pressure Processed Fruit Juices during Chilled Storage
Avelina Fernández García, Peter Butz, and Bemhard Tauscher [pg. 1258]

Total Limonoids in Citrus
Qingguo Tian, Yan Liu, Bhimanagouda S. Patil, and Narayan G. Bhat [pg. 1261]

Isolation, Characterization, Expression, and Downregulation of a Putative Thermostable Pectinmethylesterase from Valencia Orange
C. Arias, D. Lewandowski, O. Olivares-Fuster, J. Grosser, and J. Burns [pg. 1265]

Abstracts: Processing/Food Science [pg. 1266]

"Cold Pasteurization" of Orange Juice with a Continuous High Pressure CO 2 System
D. Kincal, S. Hill, M.O. Balaban, M.R. Marshall, and R. Wildasin [pg. 1266]

Gamma Radiation Influence on Physical Chemistry and Sensorial Characteristics of Fresh Orange Juice
M.R. Verruma-Bernardi and M.H.F. Spoto [pg. 1266]

Productivity and Fruit Quality of Sweet Orange Late Cultivars for Processing
L.C. Donadio, O.R. Sempionato, and E.S. Stuchi [pg. 1266]



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