Florida 1977



International Citrus Congress - Orlando, Florida, 1-8 May 1977

Second meeting of the International Society of Citriculture
Impact of Research on California Citrus Fertilization
T.W. Embleton and W.W. Jones [pg. 1]

Nutritional Problems in Citrus Culture in Japan
Eiji Yuda [pg. 5]

Nutritional Status of Citrus Trees in Sao Paulo, Brazil
Oily Rodriguez, Sylvio Moreira, J.R. Gallo and J. Teofilo Sob [pg. 9]

Leaf and Soil Boron in Sonic 'Washington' Navel Orange Orchards Along the Mediterranean Coast of Egypt
Ahmed A. Elseewi and A.A. Elmalky [pg. 12]

Soil Analysis as a Necessary Complement to Leaf Analysis for Fertiliser Advisory Purposes
S.F. du Plessis [pg. 15]

Seasonal Changes in the Relationships Between Macronutrients in Orange (C. sinensis Osb.) Leaves and Soil Analytical Data in Florida
C.A. Anderson and L.G. Albrigo [pg. 20]

Varietal Response to Nutrition
Jose L. Guardiola [pg. 26]

Increased Growth of Young Valencia Orange Trees With the Soil Amendment Gypsum in South Australia
J.B. Robinson [pg. 31]

Influence of Nitrogen, Potassium, and Irrigation on Citrus Fruit Quality
R.C.J. Koo and R.L. Reese [pg. 34]

Crop Management Factors Affecting Growth, Yield and Fruit Composition of Citrus
Peter R. Gary and Peter G.J. Weerts [pg. 39]

Changing Goals and Modes in Use of Mineral Nutrients in Citrus Orchards
A. Bar-Akiva [pg. 43]

Fertilizing Through Drip Irrigation Systems on Orange Trees
David H. Bester, Paul S. Fouche and Gerhard H. Veldman [pg. 46]

Influence of Fertilization on Growth, Yield and Leaf Mineral Composition of 'Clementine' Mandarin on Three Rootstocks in Corsica
P.J. Cassin, P. Favreau. J. Marchal, P. Lossois and P. Marlin-Prevel [pg. 49]

Citrus—A Case Study of Environmental Effects on Plant Water Relations
Merrill R. Kaufmann [pg. 57]

Rootstocks Affect 'Valencia' Orange Fruit Quality and Water Balance
L.G. Albrigo [pg. 62]

Some Aspects of the Stomatal Behavior of Citrus
Saul E. Camacho-B. [pg. 66]

Response of Citrus Trees to Water Stress in Arizona
R.H. Hilgeman [pg. 70]

Water Use Efficiency of Citrus: Room for Improvement?
A. Mantell [pg. 74]

Growth Response of Twelve Citrus Rootstock-Scion Combinations on a Spodosol Modified by Deep Tillage and Profile Drainage
D.V. Calvert, H.W. Ford, E.H. Stewart and F.G. Martin [pg. 79]

The Importance of Water Quality in Drip/Trickle Irrigation Systems
Harry W. Ford [pg. 84]

Microjets for Macro Efficiency
G.S. Bredell and C.J. Barnard [pg. 87]

Studies on the Multi-Purpose Utilization of Sprinkler Irrigation Systems in Citrus Groves of Wakayama Prefecture
Hiromu Uda and Jumpei Morimoto [pg. 93]

The Effect of Drip and Sprinkler Irrigation on Grapefruit Yield, Water Use and Soil Salinity
H. Bielorai [pg. 99]

Evaluation of Alternatives to Overhead Sprinklers for Citrus Irrigation
P.J. Cole and M.R. Till [pg. 103]

Citrus Responses to Irrigation Methods
D.R. Rodney, R.L. Roth and B.R. Gardner [pg. 106]

Drip Irrigation in Citrus Orchards
Eliezer Yagev [pg. 110]

Comparison Between Drip and Basin Irrigation for Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in Sicily
G. Fatta Del Bosco, G. Barbera and G. Occorso [pg. 113]

Water Management in Texas Citrus
Calvin G. Lyons, Jr [pg. 117]

Recent Improvements and Changes in California Nursery Practices
Robert G. Platt [pg. 118]

Cultural Practices in Florida Citrus Nurseries—1976
G.D. Bridges and C.O. Youtsey [pg. 121]

Citrus Seed Production
D.A. Newcomb [pg. 124]

Current Citrus Nursery Practices in Brazil
C.S. Moreira and A.A. Salibc [pg. 127]

Utilization of Mycorrhizal Fungi in Citrus Nurseries
John A. Menge, Harold Lembright and E.L.V. Johnson [pg. 129]

Concepts and Procedures for Importation of Citrus Budwood
C.N. Roistacher, E.C. Calavan and L. Navarro [pg. 133]

Citrus Virus Diseases in Spain in Relation to Plant Production: Present and Future Prospects
L. Navarro [pg. 136]

Citrus Weed Control With Herbicides
Lowell S. Jordan, Robert C. Russell and Dale L. Shaner [pg. 140]

The Potential of Using Insects for Biological Control of Weeds in Citrus
Dale H. Habeck [pg. 146]

Development of Glyphosate as a Herbicide for Florida Citrus
D. P.H. Tucker, D.D. Baird and R.L. Phillips [pg. 148]

Herbicide Application Through Irrigation Systems (Herbigation) in Citrus
Y. Oren and E. Israeli [pg. 152]

Citrus Weed Control Equipment
Paul W. Moore [pg. 154]

Citrus Tree Spacings
E.L. Barnhart [pg. 156]

Present Status of Weed Control Practices in Spain
Diego G. de Barreda [pg. 158]

New Concepts in Citrus Tree Spacing and Pruning Practices
Peter R. Cary [pg. 162]

Florida Citrus Herbiciding by a Custom Applicator
J.M. McNamee [pg. 165]

Citrus Tree Spacing in California
S.B. Boswell, D.R. Atkin and K.W. Optiz [pg. 166]

Behavior of Orange Trees Under Three Spacings in the State of Bahia, Brazil
O.S. Passes, A.P. Cunha Sobrinho, Y.S. Coelho and E.M. Rodrigues [pg. 169]

Hedging and Topping in Texas Grapefruit Orchards
John E. Fucik [pg. 172]

Effects of Various Treatments on Lemon Fruit Wind-Scar
R.M. Burns, S.B. Boswell and S.W. Wear [pg. 177]

Girdling Effects on Tree Performance
A. Cohen [pg. 178]

A Freeze Forecasting Model Based Upon Meteorological Satellite Data
R.A. Sutherland and J.F. Bartholic [pg. 181]

Economic Benefits of Improved Frost Warning
Joel S. Greenberg and Peter A. Stevenson [pg. 184]

Dissemination of Weather Information to Citrus Growers at the Local Level
J.L. Jackson and T.Y.V. Oswalt [pg. 190]

Forecasting Procedures and Technical Methods of Cold Protection in the Japanese Citrus Industry
Taichi Maki [pg. 192]

Recent Trends in Frost Protection Methods in California
Robert F. Brewer [pg. 196]

The Potential of Citrus to Survive Freezes
George Yelenosky [pg. 199]

Man-Made Fog for Freeze Protection & Microclimate Control
Thomas R. Mee [pg. 203]

Use of Artificial Fog for Low Temperature Control and Its Possible Value in Climatic Control to Improve Citrus Fruiting in a Desert Climate
A.H. Finch [pg. 209]


Degreening Florida Citrus Fruit: Procedures and Physiology
A.A. McCornack and W.F. Wardowski [pg. 211]

Some Physiological Aspects of Citrus Fruit Degreening
Eliahou Cohen [pg. 215]

Degreening of 'Satsuma' Mandarin in Japan
H. Kitagawa, K. Kawada and T. Tarutani [pg. 219]

Physiology of Degreening—Summary and Discussion of Related Topics
Irving L. Eaks [pg. 223]

Factors Involved in Storage of Citrus Fruits: A New Evaluation
W. Gierson and T.T. Hatton [pg. 227]

Effects of Orchard Treatments on Orange Fruit Quality and Storage Ability
Shaul P. Monselise and Alegre Sasson [pg. 232]

The Role of Volatiles in Storage of Citrus Fruits
S.M. Norman and L.G. Houck [pg. 238]

Problems of Decay in Marketing Citrus Fruits: Strategy and Solutions Around the World Israel
V. Gutter [pg. 242]

Postharvest Handling of South African Citrus Fruit
P. du T. Pelser [pg. 244]

Factors Affecting Market Diseases of Florida Citrus Fruits
John J. Smoot [pg. 250]

Problems of Decay Control in Marketing Citrus Fruits: Strategy and Solutions, California and Arizona
A.J. Dawson and J.W. Eckert [pg. 255]

Ethylene in CA Long Term Lemon Storage
B.L. Wild, W.B. McGlasson and T.H. Lee [pg. 259]

Problems of Resistance to Citrus Fungicides
L.G. Houck [pg. 263]

Studies on Imazalil as Potential Treatment for Control of Citrus Fruit Decay
E.Y. Laville, P.R. Harding. Y. Dagan, M. Rahat, A.J. Kraght and L.E. Rippon [pg. 269]

Application of Benzimidazole Fungicides for Citrus Decay Control
G. Eldon Brown [pg. 273]

An Evaluation of Alternative Harvested Fruit Transportation Systems
Rod Sherkin [pg. 277]

Future Development in Packhouse Engineering
M.V. Johnson [pg. 283]

Coping With the Environment by Customizing the Transportation of Citrus to World Markets
O.L. Creech [pg. 285]

Engineering Better Interfacing of the Load, the Transport Vehicle, and the Refrigeration Unit for Improved Transportation
P.L. Breakiron [pg. 288]

Pesticide Regulations Affecting Citrus in International Trade
G.E. Carman [pg. 293]

Citrus Fungicide Residues and Legislation in Western European Countries
Roy E. McDonald and Thomas B. O'Connell [pg. 296]

Postharvest Development of Granulation in South African Export Oranges
I.M. Gilfillan and J.A. Stevenson [pg. 299]

Solar Energy Utilization in Citrus Packinghouse Operations
W.M. Miller, W.F. Wardowski and C.D. Baird [pg. 304]

Citrus Color—A Review
Ivan Stewart [pg. 308]

Chemical and Physiological Changes in Citrus Fruit During Storage and Their Relation to Fungal Infection
Mina Schiffmann-Nadel [pg. 311]

Quality Control System for Israel Citrus Export
M. Davidson, H. Peres and D. Shalit [pg. 317]

Control De Las Podredumbres Causadas Por Hongos En Los Frutos De Satsuma Despues De La Recoleccion
Juan J. Tuset, R. Carreres and C. Hinarejos [pg. 320]

The International Trade of Citrus
H.J. Connolly [pg. 322]

Plant Quarantine Regulations of Citrus
C.M. Amyx [pg. 323]


Free Trade as a Partial Solution to Worldwide Citrus Overproduction
William K. Quarles [pg. 325]

Citrus Trade Policies of the European Communities
Herman de Lange [pg. 327]

Medium-Term Prospects for World Citrus Production
Jurgen Wolff [pg. 328]

Citrus Production in the United Slates: 1977 and 1985
Jules V. Powell and Ben W. Huang [pg. 333]

Citrus Production in Latin America – Present Status and Tentative Projections
Kamal Dow [pg. 336]

Merchandising in Europe and Sweden
Thore Nydahl [pg. 342]

Japanese Retailing and the Transition of Its Merchandising
Akio Nakamura [pg. 347]

Retail Merchandising in the United States
Dale Watson [pg. 350]

The Role of the World Bank in Providing Capital for Expansion of Citrus Production and Marketing Developing Countries
Montague Yudelman [pg. 351]

Problems and Constraints Associated with Expanding Citrus Production in the Developing Countries
Don McMillen [pg. 356]

The Farm Credit Baks of Columbia and Their Impact Upon the Development of Florida's Citrus Industry
R.A. Darr [pg. 359]

Crop Insurance: A Risk Management Tool for Developed and Developing Citrus Producing Countries
Donald H. Beeler [pg. 363]

Citrus Consumption and Marketing in Canada, the U.S. and Latin America
J.G. Henderson [pg. 366]

Marketing and Consumption of Processed Citrus Products in the United States, Canada and Latin America
L.H. Myers [pg. 369]

Consumption and Marketing of Citrus in Europe, Middle East and Africa
Florian Brann [pg. 375]

Production, Marketing and Trade in Europe-Consumption and Marketing of Citrus (Processed Citrus)
Helmut Lingens [pg. 378]

Consumption and Marketing of Citrus in Japan
Y. Tominaga [pg. 380]

Consumption and Marketing of Citrus Fruits in Oceania
J.H.P. Blick [pg. 382]

Citrus Production in Iran
B. Khaghani and M. Samadi [pg. 391]


Citrus Harvesting in Florida
G.E. Coppock and S.L. Hedden [pg. 393]

Citrus Harvesting in California and Arizona
J.H. Chesson and P.F. Burkner [pg. 397]

Citrus Harvesting in Israel
Y. Sarig [pg. 402]

Abscission Chemicals - Aid To Citrus Fruit Removal
W.C. Wilson, R.E. Holm and R.K. Clark [pg. 404]

Mechanical Removal of Fruit From Citrus Trees
J.D. Whitney and H.R. Sumner [pg. 407]

Collecting and Handling Mechanically Removed Citrus Fruit
H.R. Sumner and D.B. Churchill [pg. 413]

Mechanical Systems to Harvest Citrus Fruit for Juice Processing Plants in Florida
S.L. Hedden, J.D. Whitney and G.E. Coppock [pg. 418]

Fruit Removal Yield of Grapefruit Trees in Response to Trunk Shaking Parameters
A. Golomb M. Nivon (Weinblum) and H. Beres [pg. 423]


A Multiple Residue Method for Citrus Fruits: Its Technique and Some Data
R. Mestres, S. Illes, M. Campo and J. Tourte [pg. 426]

Photostable Pyrethroid Insecticide Residues in Citrus Fruit
R. Mestres, Ch. Chevallier, Cl. Espinoza and R. Cornet [pg. 429]

Pesticide Regulations Affecting Citrus Production
Richard Lynn Lipsey [pg. 435]

Weather and Pesticide Residues
H.N. Nigg, J.C. Allen and R.F. Brooks [pg. 437]

Perspectives on the Control of South African Citrus Thrips with Temephos
C.M. St. L. Searle [pg. 441]

Bionomics and Control of Mites Attacking Citrus
L.R. Jeppson [pg. 445]

Aerial Application of Pesticides to Control Citrus Pests
Robert C. Bullock [pg. 451]

Biological Control of Citrus Mites
J.A. McMurtry [pg. 456]

Horticultural Practices Affecting Phytophagous Mite Populations on Citrus
C.W. McCoy [pg. 459]

Penetration of Citrus Cuticles and Cells by Citrus Snow Scale, Unaspis citri (Comst.)
L.C. Albrigo and R.F. Brooks [pg. 463]

Chemical Control of Scale Insects on California Citrus
G. E. Carman [pg. 468]

Biological Control of Some Armored Scale Insects on Citrus
A.G. Selhime and R.F. Brooks [pg. 475]

Current Control and Management Programs for Tephritidae
R.M. Baranowski [pg. 479]

Pheromone Research In Tephritid Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)
James L. Nation [pg. 481]

Remote Sensing of Insect Populations Attacking Citrus
W. G. Hart, S.J. Ingle and M.R. Davis [pg. 485]

Telespectroradiometer and Multispectral Sensing of Citrus Trees
G.J. Edwards, T.A. Wheaton, C.H. Blazquez and Tom Davis [pg. 487]

Host Plant Preferences of Citrus Blackfly, Aleurucanthus woglumi Ashby (Homoptcra: Aleyrodidae), in Florida
F. W. Howard and P.L. Neel [pg. 489]

A History of Chemical Control for the Citrus Blackfly and Development in its Management in Florida
James A. Reinert and P.L. Neel [pg. 493]

Ants of Citrus: Some Considerations
William F. Buren and Willard H. Whitcomb [pg. 496]

Citrus Root Weevils in Florida: Identification, Biology and Control
W.J. Schroeder and J.B. Beavers [pg. 498]

Ecological Changes in Florida Citrus Groves
William A. Simanton [pg. 500]

Cooperative Extension Service Integrated Pest Management Project for Citrus
K.G. Townsend and Ben Abbitt [pg. 504]

A Tree Model for Simulating Pest Management Strategies in Citrus
Jon C. Allen [pg. 507]

Discussion Session at the End of the Pest Management Session [pg. 512]


Influence of Rootstock on Mandarin Cultivars
A.H. Krezelorn [pg. 513]

The Effect of Rootstocks on Citrus Cold Hardiness
Roger H. Young [pg. 518]

The Influence of Rootstock on Performance of 'Valencia' Sweet Orange
D.J. Hutchison [pg. 523]

The Influence of Rootstocks on Yield and Quality of Red Grapefruit in Texas
Heinz K. Wutscher [pg. 526]

Performance of Nucellar and Old-Line Clones of 'Shamouti' Orange and 'Marsh Seedless' Grapefruit in Israel
A. Shaked, Y. Levi and K. Mendel [pg. 529]

The Performance of Nucellar Citrus Lines on Several Rootstocks in South Africa
D.F.A. von Staden and P.C.J. Oberholzer [pg. 532]

The Performance of Nucellar and Old-Line 'Piralima' Orange on Rangpur Lime Rootstock
J. Pompeu. Jr.. O. Rodriguez, J, Teofilo Sob, A.A. Salibe and C.G.B. Demetrio [pg. 535]

Method of Nucellar Selection Used in Corsica
P.J. Cassin and P. Lossois [pg. 536]

The Benton Citrange: A Promising Phytophthora-Resistant Rootstock for Citrus Trees
K. Long, L. Fraser, P. Bacon and P. Broadbent [pg. 541]

Resistance in Citrus Rootstocks to Radopholus similis and Tylenchulus semipenetrans (Nematoda)
J.H. O'Bannon and H.W. Ford [pg. 544]

Citrus reticulate and a Few Other Species as Rootstocks for the Nucellar 'Palmer' Navel Orange
L.C. Holtzhausen, W.A. Eshuys and P.J. Muller [pg. 549]

Potentially Dwarfing Rootstocks for Florida Citrus
William S. Castle and Richard L. Phillips [pg. 558]

Citrus Relatives are not Irrelevant as Dwarfing Stocks or Interstocks for Citrus
W.P. Bitters, D.A. Cole and C.D. McCarty [pg. 561]

Effect of Rootstocks on the Response of Navel Orange Trees to Dwarfing Inoculations
K.B. Bevington and P.E. Bacon [pg. 567]

Inoculation with Dwarf Mandarin Buds to Increase Cropping of Navel Orange Trees
P.E. Bacon and K.B. Bevington [pg. 570]

Characteristics Due to Chimeras and Their Stability in Citrus Cultivars
M. Iwamasa. M. Nishiura, N. Okudai and D. Ishiuchi [pg. 571]

Isolation of Protoplast in Citrus
Aliza Vardi [pg. 575]

Scion/Stock Incompatibility in Virus-Free Citrus Trees
J. B. Forner, J.A. Sanchez-Capuchino and R. Casanova [pg. 578]

Observations on Pistil Characteristics and Number of Seed Per Fruit in 'Femminello' Lemon at Different Blooming Periods
Francesco Giulo Crescimanno and Andrea de Michele [pg. 580]

Mutation Breeding and the Development of the 'Star Ruby' Grapefruit
Richard A. Hensz [pg. 582]

Intergeneric Hybridization of Citrus and Other Generea Citrus Cultivar Improvement
H.C. Barrett [pg. 586]

Citrus Breeding: New Techniques in Stimulation of Hybrid Production and Identificatoin of Zygotic Embryos and Seedlings
J.H. de Lange and A.P. Vincent [pg. 589]

Percentages of Spontaneous Triploids in Progenies of Diploid Lemons and Mandarins
Giuseppe Geraci, f. DePasquale and N. Tusa [pg. 596]

New Promising Mandarin and Mandarin Hybrids
F. Russo, Starrantino and G. Reforgiato Recupero [pg. 597]

Clonal Repositories for Preservation of Citrus and Citrus Relatives in the United States
James W. Cameron [pg. 601]

Genetic Resources Conservation of Citrus Species and Near Relatives from the International Viewpoint
Walter Reuther [pg. 604]

Present Situation of Citrus Gennplasin in Brazil
D.C. Giacometti [pg. 606]

Citrus and Citrus Relatives in the Miami Germplasm Collection
Robert J. Knight, Jr. [pg. 608]

Speed of Growth of the Pollen Tube in Lemon Flowers in Various Blooming Periods
Andrea De Michele and Francesco Calabrese [pg. 610]

Recognition of Zygotic Seedlings in Certain Orange Crosses by Vegetative Characters
C. Jack Hearn [pg. 611]

Separation of Nucellar and Zygotic Citrus Seedlings by Their Flavonoids and Other Non-Volatile Components
James H. Tatum, Robert E. Berry and C. Jack Hearn [pg. 614]

Separation of Nucellar and Zygolic Citrus Seedlings by Use of Polyphenol Oxidase-Catalyzed Browning
Asim Esem and Robert K. Soost [pg. 616]

Peroxidase Isozymes as a Tool for Early Separation of Nucellar and Zygotic Citrus Seedlings
P. Spiegel-Roy, A. Vardi and A. Shani [pg. 619]

Identification of Citrus Species by Phytoserological Methods
Jumpei Morimoto [pg. 625]

A Progress Report on Citrus Rootstocks Studies in Sardinia
P. Deidda and A. Milella [pg. 632]

Citrus Rootstocks in Rio Grande Do Sul, Brazil
C.M.M. Dornelles [pg. 636]

Rootstocks, Scions, and Soil Fumigation in Replanting 'Shamouti' Orange
S. Ashkenazi and Y. Oren [pg. 638]

Evaluation of Five Local Sweet Orange Cultivars in Nigeria
O.O. Adigun [pg. 640]

Estudio Comparativo De La Efectividad De Dos Tecnicas Utilizadas Para La Diferenciacion De Posturas Nucelares Y Cigoticas En Citriocos
H. Lima [pg. 641]

The History of the Navel Orange and Its Behavior in the State of Bahia, Brazil
O.S. Passos, Y.S. Coelhn and A.P. Cunha Sobrinho [pg. 645]

Promising Citrus Rootstocks and Scion Cultivars in Suriname
W. E. Fung-Kon-Sang [pg. 648]


Florida – Citrus Grower Problems
J. Brantley Schirard [pg. 651]

Problems of Citrus Growing in Israel
Izchak Price and Isaac Perry [pg. 653]

Major Problems in Growing, Harvesting, and Marketing Citrus in California
D.A. Newcomb [pg. 655]


Growth Regulators and Alternate Bearing
W.W. Jones, C.W. Coggins, Jr. and T.W. Embleton [pg. 657]

Field Evaluation of Growth Regulators for Fruit Set
A.H. Krezdorn and D.C. Jernberg [pg. 660]

Citrus Fruit Development: Endogenous Systems and External Regulation
Shaul P. Monselise [pg. 604]

Physiological Assumptions Toward the Development of a Citrus Fruit Model
E.E. Goldschmidt and S.P. Monselise [pg. 668]

Separation and Identification of Endogenous Growth Regulators in Citrus
T. Adair Wheaton and Michael G.Bausher [pg. 673]

Abscission in Citrus: Hormonal, Anatomical and Enzymic Aspects
R. Goren, M. Huberman and M.J. Jaffe [pg. 677]

Cellulase Isozymes in Citrus
S.V. Kossuth and R.H. Biggs [pg. 683]

Growth Regulators and Coloring of Citrus Frutis
C.W. Coggins, Jr. and W.W. Jones [pg. 686]

Some Factors Influencing Flowering and Fruit-Set of 'Clementine' Mandarin
P. Deidda and M. Agabbio [pg. 688]

The Florida Department of Citrus Cooperative Chemical Screening Programs for Citrus
W.C. Wilson, D.S. Kenney and R.K. Holm [pg. 692]

Gibberellic Acid and Flower Bud Development in Sweet Orange
Jose L. Guardiola, M. Agusti and F. Garcia-Mari [pg. 696]

Recolecion Tadia De La Naranja 'Washington' Navel
S. Zaragoza. R. Carveres, D.G. de Barreda, E. Alonso, A. del Busto y S. Prado [pg. 699]

Chemical Abscission of Florida Processing Oranges with Ethanedial Dioxime
J.B. Taylor, P.C. Kennedy, I.Y. Chen and Merrill Wilcox [pg. 702]

Methods to Control Alternate Cropping of 'Valencia' Orange Trees in Australia
G.I. Moss, K.B. Bevington, P.T. Gallasch, B.M. El-Zeftawa, I.R. Thornton, P. Bacon and B. Freeman [pg. 704]


The Biomedical Basis of Fruit Composition and Quality
V.P. Maier and Linda C. Brewster [pg. 709]

Citrus Enzyme Systems: Opportunities for Control of Fruit Quality
Joseph H. Bruemmer, Bela S. Buslig, and Bongwoo Roe [pg. 712]

Bioregulators and Citrus Fruit Color
Henry Yokoyama, Wan-Jean Hsu, Stephen M. Poling, Ernest Hayman and Charles DeBenedict [pg. 717]

Biosynthesis and Bioregulation of Ethylene in Fruit Bearing
Morris Lieberman [pg. 722]

Chromosomal Proteins: Their Role in the Regulation of Gene Expression
Gary S. Stein and Janet L. Stein [pg. 728]

Influence of Cultural Practices, Scion and Rootstock Selection on Citrus Peel Oil Production
J.W. Kesterson and R.J. Braddock [pg. 734]

Efficient Processing of Orange Juice Extractor Residues Into By-Products
R.J. Braddock, J.W. Kesterson and W.M. Miller [pg. 737]

Pectin-A Review of Selected Advances Made in the Last 25 Years
D.B. Nelson [pg. 739]

Flavonoids: Uses and Byproducts
R. M. Horowitz and Bruno Gentili [pg. 743]

New Use of Pectic Enzymes in Citrus Processing
John Burr and W.J. Flynn [pg. 746]

Orange Juice Processing: Storage and Packing in Florida
C. Reed Sutherland [pg. 748]

Processes to Control Juice Cloud
Robert A. Baker [pg. 751]

Recovery and Concentration of Citrus Aroma
Chaim H. Mannheim and Nehama Passy [pg. 756]

Handling and Grading of Oranges in Processing Plants
William L. Bryan [pg. 763]

Wastewater Treatment and Recycling in the Citrus Industry
Ted Hong [pg. 768]

Energy Management and Conservation in the Citrus Industry
Ralph W. Cook [pg. 774]

Controlling Quality of Citrus Products
Morris W. Ratcliff [pg. 776]

Quality Factors in Single-Strength and Concentrated Orange Juice
Robert E. Berry [pg. 777]

Grapefruit Products
Bruce J. Lime [pg. 781]

Quality and Detection of Frauds in Commercial Citrus Juices in Different Countries of Europe
Jose Royo-Iranzo [pg. 783]

Relationship Between the °Brix of Citrus Juices and their Soluble Chemical Components
J. Royo Iranzo and Ma. J. Peres Toran [pg. 791]

Recent Problems of Citrus Processing and Byproducts in Japan
S. Itoo [pg. 796]

Automated Enzymatic Analysis of D-Isocitric Juices
Béla S. Buslig and S.V. Ting [pg. 799]

Abscission Chemical and Ethylene Gas Effects on Essential Oil Composition and Flavor of Orange Juice
Manuel G. Moshonas, Philip E. Shaw and Donald A. Sims [pg. 802]

Orange Juice Flavor: Contribution of Certain Volatile Components as Evaluated by Sensory Panels
Philip E. Shaw, Esam M. Ahmed and Raymond A. Dennison [pg. 804]

Recovery of Citrus Pigments from Processing Waste-An Overview
Charles W. Wilson, III and Philip E. Shaw [pg. 808]

Pectin Quality and Quantity Differences Between Whole Peel and Shaved Albedo from 'Duncan ' Grapefruit and 'Pineapple,' and 'Valencia' Oranges
P.G. Crandall and A.H. Rouse [pg. 810]

Review of Quantitative Analyses for Limonin, Naringin, Naringenin Rutinoside, Hesperidin, and Neohesperidin Dihydrochalcone in Citrus Juice by High Performance Liquid Chromatography
James F. Fisher [pg. 813]

Factors Influencing the Flavor of Grapefruit Juice
J.A. Attaway [pg. 816]

Aseptic Processing and Packaging of High Acid Liquid Foods
B. von Bockelmann [pg. 820]


Citrus Nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) Problems Worldwide
S.D. Van Gundy and J.W. Meagher [pg. 823]

Nematodes Other Than Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb Pathogenic to Citrus
R.N. Inserra and N. Vovlas [pg. 826]

The Role of Nematodes as Vectors of Citrus Viruses
D.E. Stokes [pg. 831]

Some Aspects of Host Reaction by Resistant Citrus Rootstock (Poncirus trifoliate) to Tylenchulus semipenetrans Infection
C. Scotto La Massese [pg. 833]

The Impact of New Nematicides and Irrigation Practices on Methods of Citrus Nematode Control
D.L. Milne [pg. 835]

Chemical Control of Nematodes
Charles M. Heald and J.D. Radewald [pg. 838]

Biological Control of Nematode Parasites of Citrus by Natural Enemies
G.R. Stirling and R. Mankau [pg. 843]

Nonpesticidal Approaches to Nematode Control
A.C. Tarjan and J.H. O'Bannon [pg. 848]

Methyl Bromide for Control of Soil-Borne Fungal Pathogens
Donald E. Munnecke [pg. 853]

Prospects of Biological Control of Citrus Root Disease Fungi
Peter H. Tsao [pg. 857]

Evaluation of Citrus spp., Relatives, and Hybrids for Resistance to Phytophthora parasitica Dastur
Gordon R. Grimm and D.J. Hutchison [pg. 863]

Dwarfing of Citrus Trees by Inoculation with a Pathogen
K. Long, L. Fraser, P. Broadbent, J. Duncan [pg. 866]

Tristeza Control in Brazil by Preimmunization with Mild Strains
G.W. Muller and A.S. Costa [pg. 868]

Mycorrhizal Fungi Associated with Citrus and Their Possible Interactions with Pathogens
John A. Menge, Stanley Nemec, R.M. Davis and Vahe Minassian [pg. 872]

The Milkweed Vine Pathotype of Phytophthora citrophthora as a Biological Control Agent of Morrenia odorata
W.H. Ridings, C.L. Schoulties, N.E. EI-Gholl and D.J. Mitchell [pg. 877]

A Review of the Nature and History of Citrus Blight in Florida
Paul F. Smith and Herman J. Reitz [pg. 881]

Diagnosis of Trees with Citrus Blight (YTD)
Mortimer Cohen and Heinz K. Wutscher [pg. 884]

A Review of Efforts to Determine the Etiology of Young Tree Decline of Citrus Trees in Florida
R.W. Hanks and A.W. Feldman [pg. 887]

Attempts to Control Young Tree Decline
H.C. Burnett, S. Nemec and D. Gonsalves [pg. 891]

The Australian Citrus Dieback Problem
P. Broadbent, L. Fraser, A. Beattie, N. Grylls and J. Duncan [pg. 894]

Decline of Citrus on Rough Lemon Rootstocks in Arizona
Joseph L. Troutman. Herbert McDonald, and J.C. Matejka [pg. 896]

Citrus Disease "X" in Peru
R. Franciosi, E. Cardich, J. Puiggros and K. Bedersky [pg. 897]

Autumn Leaf Drop of Sweet Orange in Egypt and Libya
F. Nour-Eklin and A.E.-S.A. Fudl-Allah [pg. 898]

Brittle-Twig Yellows, A New Disorder of Sweet Orange in Southern Iran
M. Samadi, L.C. Cochran and A.L. Martinez [pg. 900]

Natural Spread of Spiroplasma citri by Insect Vectors and its Implications for Control of Stubborn Disease of Citrus
E.C. Calavan G.H. Kaloostian, G.N. Oldfield, E.M. Nauer and D.J. Gumpf [pg. 900]

Greening Disease in Africa
J.N. Moll and S.P. Van Vuuren [pg. 903]

Citrus Stubborn Disease in Egypt, Libya, and Lebanon
A.E.-S.A. Fudl-Allah and F. Nour-Eldin [pg. 913]

Dieback of Citrus in India
S.P. Raychaudhuri. T.K. Nariani, Y.S. Ahlawat [pg. 914]

Relation of Temperature to the Development of Citrus Canker Lesions in the Spring
Meisaku Koizumi [pg. 924]

Control of Mal Secco Disease of Lemon Trees
Zvi Solel [pg. 928]

Comparison of Psorosis and Other Viruses Causing Leaf Flecking in Citrus
L.W. Timmer and H.N. Benatena [pg. 930]

Some Recent Observations on Stem Pitting of Citrus in Florida
A.W. Feldman and R.W. Hanks [pg. 936]

Some Recently Discovered and Recognized Virus Diseases and Their Potential Threat to Citrus Production
T. Miyakawa [pg. 941]

Present Status of Impietratura Disease
A, Catara, Maria Bassi, G. Perrotta, C. Magnano di San Lio and Carmela La Ferlita [pg. 946]

The Stem-Pitting Effects of Tristeza on Different Citrus Hosts and Their Economic Significance
Ary A. Salibe [pg. 953]

Declines on Trifoliata Orange and Other Tristeza-Tolerant Rootstocks
R.E. Schwarz [pg. 955]

Evaluation of the Main Variables that Affect Citrus Tristeza Virus Transmission by Aphids
M. Bar-Joseph, B. Raccah and G. Loebenstein [pg. 958]

'Marsh Seedless' Grapefruit, 'Galego' Lime and 'Pera' Sweet Orange Selections in Relation to Selection for Tristeza Virus Tolerance
Luiz Carlos Donadio [pg. 962]

The Regulatory Role in Protecting Florida Citrus
C.P. Seymour [pg. 963]

Elimination of Citrus Pathogens in Propagative Budwood. I. Budwood Selection, Indexing and Thermotherapy
C.N. Roistacher [pg. 965]

Elimination of Citrus Pathogens in Propagative Budwood. II. In Vitro Propagation
L. Navarro and J. Juarez [pg. 973]

Behavior and Control of Greasy Spot in Florida Citrus Groves
J.O. Whiteside [pg. 981]

Phytophthora Diseases of Citrus: A Review
Patricia Broadbent [pg. 986]

The Black Spot Disease of Citrus and its Control in South Africa
C.R. Kellerman and J.M. Kotze [pg. 992]

Citrus Melanose and its Related Disease in Japan
H. Yamato [pg. 997]

Epidemiology of the Tristeza Virus in Citrus Plantations of Surinam
F.K Klas [pg. 999]

Control of Citrus Mal Secco in Italy Today
M. Salerno and G. Cutuli [pg. 1001]

Observations on the Susceptibility of Nucellar Lines of Lemon to Mal Secco Disease in Sicily
G. Perrotta and E. Tribulato [pg. 1004]

A New Fungal Disease of Satsuma Mandarin
Shoichi Tanaka [pg. 1006]


El Diagnostico del Estado Nutritivo de las Plantas (Diagnosing the Nutritional Status of Plants.)
O. Carpena-Artes [pg. 1008]

Estudio Comparativo de Distintas Fuentes y Niveles de Materia Organica Usadas Como Abono de Fondo en Naranja 'Valencia' 
(Comparative Study of Types and Concentrations of Organic Materials for Fertilizing 'Valencia' Orange Trees.)
Gilberto Gras [pg. 1010]

Distribucion de Cloruro y Sodio en Patrones Citricos Regados con Aquas de Caracter Salino 
(Chloride and Sodium Distribution in Citrus Rootstocks Irrigated with Saline Waters)
R.G. Fernandez, M. Caro, A. Cerda and M.G. Guillen [pg. 1014]

La Utilization de Plasticos como, Protectores de Plantones 
(The Use of Plastic Mulch to Protect Young Trees)
D.G. de Barreda, J. Sala, V. Torres and A. del Busto [pg. 1017]

Efecto del Nitrogeno, Fosforo y Potasio Sobre el Rendimiento, Calidad del Fruto y Contenido Foliar de la Lima 'Persa' 
(Effects of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on Yield, Fruit Quality and Foliar Content of 'Persian' Lime)
Joaquin Hernandez Borroto [pg. 1020]

Effect of Phosphorus Supply on Growth and on the Level of Certain Nitrogenous Constituents in Citrus Plants
Miriam Achituv [pg. 1024]

Nitrogeno Nitrico y Actividad Reductora dc Nitrato en Hojas de Limonero 'Verna' 
(Nitrate Nitrogen and Nitrate Reductase Activity in 'Verna' Lemon Tree Leaves)
C. Alcaraz y E. Banet [pg. 1026]

Consideraciones Sobre la Composicion Cationica y la Distribution de las Formas Quimicas del Calcio en Limonero 
(Cation Composition and Distribution of Calcium in Lemon Trees)
O. Carpena, S. Llorente, A. Leon and C. la Pena [pg. 1029]

El Cultivo de Arboles de Limon en Margas Grises del Mioceno en la Region de Murcia, Espana 
(The Cultivation of Lemon Trees on Grey Miocenic Marl in the Region of Murcia, Spain)
J.A. Sanchez, F. Artes and A.S. Pallares [pg. 1033]

Water Requirement of Grapefruit Trees in Texas
Robert F. Leyden [pg. 1037]

Drip Irrigation Trials in a Citrus Orchard
G. Raciti and A. Scuderi [pg. 1040]

The Effects of Cooling by Overhead Sprinkling on "June Drop" of Navel Oranges in California
R.F. Brewer, K. Opitz, F. Aljibury and K. Hench [pg. 1045]

Studies of High Temperature Effects on Fruit Drop from Washington Navel Orange: I. Interaction of Temperature and Leaf Water Potential
R.L. Palmer, Z. Hanscom, III and W.M. Dugger [pg. 1048]

Thermal Conductivity in Citrus and other Leaves
F.M. Turrell and. Kenneth K. Iwata [pg. 1053]

Evoluciones, Durante las Etapas de la Floracion Primaveral, de Fracciones Organicas de Fosforo en Flores de Citrus limonumCultivados en Suelos Salinos (Development of Organic Phosphorus Fractions in Flowers During the Flowering Stages of Citrus limonum Cultivated on Saline Soils)
Ma. Parra and A. Ortuno [pg. 1056]

The Practical Use of Color Infrared Photography in Citrus Groves in Israel
R. Hochberg and N. Ravid [pg. 1060]

Acciones de los Herbicidas Clorotriazinicos Sobre Microorganismos Solubilizadores de Fosforo en Suelos Citricolas del Sureste de Espana 
(Effect of Chlorotriazinc Herbicides on Phosphorus-Solubilizing Microflora in the Citrus Soils of S.E. Spain)
A. Ortuno, A. Hernansaez and J. Albaladejo [pg. 1061]

Algunas Malas Hierbas de las Plantaciones de Citricos de Cuba 
(Some Weeds Affecting Citrus Groves in Cuba)
R. Casamayor and R, Garcia [pg. 1065]

Influencia del Stress Hidrico Sobre la Floracion y Fructificacion de los Naranjos 'Valencia' (Citrus sinensis (L) Osbeck) 
(The Effect of Water Stress and Presence of Fruit of Previous Harvest on Flowering and Fruit set of 'Valencia' Oranges in Cuba)
C.G. Borroto and A.M. Rodriguez [pg. 1069]

Influencia de la Epoca de Recoleccion en el Rendimiento y Calidad de la Naranja 'Valencia' (Citrus Sinensis (L) Osbeck) 
(Effect of Time of Harvest on Yield and Quality of 'Valencia' Oranges in Cuba)
C.G. Borroto, Nancy Garcia and A. M. Rodriguez [pg. 1074]

Influencia del Patron en el Desarrollo del Pomelo 'Marsh' y el Desarrollo del Pomelo 'Marsh' y el Naranjo 'Valencia' Late en Cuba 
(Influence of Rootstock in the Development of 'Marsh' Grapefruit and 'Valencia' Orange in Cuba)
N. del Valle, D. Van Viet, J. Suarez and Alba Rios [pg. 1079]

La Mosca Prieta de los Citricos, Aleurocanthus Woglumi Ashbyen Mexico
Eleazar Jimenez Jimenez [pg. 1084]

Obra Para Desverdizacion del Citricos 
(Study on Degreening of Citrus Fruits)
A. Albert Bernal and J. Cuquerella Cayuela [pg. 1087]

Carotenoid Formation in Ripening Satsuma Fruit
H. D. Sonnen [pg. 1089]

A System for Postharvest Mould Control of Citrus Fruits in Southern Australia
Barry Tugwell [pg. 1093]

Productivity Effects of Functional Characteristics of Citrus Bagging and Cartoning Equipment
Earl K. Bowman [pg. 1096]

Ethylene Dibromide Fumigation of Florida Grapefruit as a Quarantine Treatment Against Infestations of Caribbean Fruit Fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
A. K. Burditt, Jr., and D.L. von Windeguth [pg. 1100]

Thiophanate-Methyl Postharvest Residues in Oranges
R. Mestres, J. Tourte and ,M. Campo and J. Lhoste [pg. 1103]

Chromatographic Assay Methods of Imazalil in Citrus Fruit
J. Wynants [pg. 1107]

Contribucion al Estudio de la Fisiologia del Pomelo de la Variedad 'Marsh Seedless' Durante su Tratamiento y Conservacion por el Frio a Medio y Largo Plazo (Physiology of 'Marsh Seedless' Grapefruit in Refrigerated Storage)
G. Prestamo and J. Caro [pg. 1113]

The Statistical Relationship Between Decay Losses and Increased "Apparent Respiration" During Refrigerated Storage of Citrus Fruits
J. Caro, G. Prestamo and J. Moreno Calvo [pg. 1120]

Studies on the Controlled Atmosphere Storage of 'Satsuma' Mandarin, (Citrus unshiu Marc.)
C. Oogaki and M. Manago [pg. 1127]

Decay of Satsuma Fruit in Cold Storage
R. Carreres, J.J. Tuset and J.L. Lloret [pg. 1133]

Effects of Postharvest Applications of 2,4-D, GA and Waxing on the Keeping Quality of Lemons in Cold Storage
Salah M. El-Nabaway, Mostafa M. El-Hammady, Abdel-Azeem M. El-Hammady and Ahmed El-Gazzawy [pg. 1135]

Conservation de Limon 'Primofiori' en Atmosfera Controlada. (Controlled Atmosphere Storage of 'Primofiori' Lemon)
F. Artés Calero y O. Carpena [pg. 1137]

Fruit Retailing in Japan
H. Kitagawa [pg. 1142]

Applications for Automatic Optical Grading Equipment in the Citrus Industry
J.J. Gaffney [pg. 1143]



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