Australia 1978



International Citrus Congress - Sydney, Australia 15-23 August 1978

Third meeting of the International Society of Citriculture



World Citrus Production and Trade: Current Situation and Future Outlook
L.H. Myers and W. Grierson [pg. 1]

Citrus Industry of South America With Special Reference to Brazil
O.S. Passos and A.A. Salibe [pg. 6]

The Australian Citrus Industry
F. Walpole [pg. 14]

The Citrus Industry in New South Wales
J.H. Duncan [pg. 17]


Quality Standards for Citrus Fruits, Juices and Beverages
W. Grierson and S.V. Ting [pg. 21]

Quality Changes in Maturing Oranges
B.V. Chandler and K.J. Nicol [pg. 27]

Can We Predict the Quality of Citrus Crops?
B.V. Chandler and K.J. Nicol [pg. 30]

Can We Quantify the Comparison of Citrus Crops?
B.V. Chandler and K- J. Nicol [pg. 31]

Quality Evaluation of Juice from 'Mid-season' Oranges
K.J. Nicol and B.V. Chandler [pg. 32]

Chemical and Temperature Control of Rind Pigment of Citrus Fruits
B.M. El-Zeftawi [pg. 33]

Plastid Ultrastructure in Relation to Rind Pigments and Re-Greening of Valencia Oranges
B.M. El-Zeftawi and R.G. Garrett [pg. 37]

Roots as a Probable Site for Citrus Limonoid Biosynthesis
K.J. Nicol and B.V. Chandler [pg. 40]

Removal of Limonin from Bitter Navel Orange Juice
R.L. Johnson and B.V. Chandler [pg. 43]

Estudio Comparative de Dos Hibridos del Genero Citrus, Tangor Ortanique y Temple
V. Alonso [pg. 45]


Citrus Breeding, Taxonomy and the Species Problem
A. Vardi and P. Spiegel-Roy [pg. 51]

Percentage of Triploid Offspring of Cross-Pollinated Diploid Polyembryonic Citrus
G. Geraci [pg. 57]

Pollen Tube Penetration into Citrus Styles
G. Gercai, G. Reforgiato and F. De Pasquale [pg. 58]

Recent Studies about Flavonoids of Citrus With Special Application to Chemotaxonomy
O. Carpena Artes and J.J. Mataix Beneyto [pg. 59]


Climate and Citrus Behaviour (Abstract only)
W. Reuther [pg. 62]

Citrus Root Systems: Their Structure, Function, Growth and Relationship to Tree Performance
W.S. Castle [pg. 62-1]

Influence of Rootstocks and Time of Picking on Browning and Coagulation of Young Citrus Shout Homogenates
F.G. Crescimanno and G. Geraci [pg. 69]

Photosynthesis and Respiration of Citrus as Dependent Upon Fruit Load
F. Lenz [pg. 70]

The Potential of a Man-Made Fog to Improve Citrus Fruiting in Inland Areas
A.H. Finch [pg. 71]

Flavonoids in Flowers of Citrus Limon cv. Eureka
F. Tomas, O. Carpena Aries, R. Pastor and J.J. Mataix Beneyto [pg. 74]

Factors Affecting Growth, Yield and Fruit Composition of Washington Navel and Late Valencia Orange Trees
P.R. Cary and P.G.J. Weerts [pg. 77]


Mechanical Harvesting and Handling of Citrus Fruits
G.E. Coppock [pg. 87]

Air Shakers for the Removal of Oranges in Florida
J.D. Whitney [pg. 91]

Mechanized Harvesting of Citrus in Italy
G. Blandini, F. Pelrone, G. Raciti, A. Scuderi and S. Sisinna [pg. 93]

Machines for Harvesting Citrus Fruit
G.A. Brown and R.J. Hutton [pg. 99]

The Citrus Mechanical Harvesting System Being Developed at Mildura, Victoria, Australia
I.R. Thornton, B.M. El-Zeftawi and I.V. Gould [pg. 102]

Mechanical Aids for Citrus Harvesting
P.G. Davey and P. Lahiff [pg. 105]

Effects of Mechanical Shake-Removal on Citrus Fruit Quality
B.M. El-Zeflawi, I.R. Thornton and I.V. Gould [pg. 106]

Delaying Deterioration of Individual Citrus Fruit by Seal-Packaging in Film of High Density Polyethylene
S. Ben-Yehoshua [pg. 110]

Citrus Fruit Sorting – Parameters Influencing Manual Work Rate
A. Lidror, Y. Roll and S. Siv [pg. 115]


Selection of Rootstocks for Salinity and Disease Resistance
D.A. Newcomb [pg. 117]

Forecasting Rootstock-Scion Incompatibility in Citrus
K.B. Bevington, W.J. Greenhalgh and K.S. McWhirter [pg. 121]

The Influence of Rootstock on the Performance of Ellendale Tangor
K.B. Bevington and J.H. Duncan [pg. 124]

Rootstock Trials for Lemons in New South Wales
J.W. Turpin, J.E. Cox and J.H. Duncan [pg. 126]

Propagation and Growing Citrus Nursery Trees in Containers
P.W. Moore [pg. 129]

Tissue Culture Propagation of Citrus Trees
R. Raj Bhansali and H.C. Arya [pg. 135]

Sources of Variability in Sour Orange Seed Germination and Seedling Growth
J.E. Fucik [pg. 141]

Research on the Micro-Grafting Technology in Citrus
N Tusa, F. De Pasquale and L. Radogna [pg. 143]

The Use of Plasto-Chemicals in Transplanting Bare-Rooted Citrus Seedlings
T.A. Nasr [pg. 145]


Biological Control of Citrus Scale Pests
I.W. McLaren [pg. 147]

Biological Aspects of Co-Existence Between Comperiella. Bifasciata Howard (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae) and Aphytisspp. Howard (Hymenoptera; Chalcidoidea: Ajihelinidae)
N.L. Richardson [pg. 150]

Some Biological Control Successes in the Southern United States
W.G. Hart [pg. 154]

Biological Control of Citrus Mites in New South Wales 
G.A.C. Beattie [pg. 156]

Chemical Control of Citrus Pests
G.E. Carman [pg. 158]

Pesticide Application Methods for Citrus in Florida
J.D. Whitney, R.F. Brooks and R.C. Bullock [pg. 163]

Remote Sensing in Horticulture
W.G. Hart [pg. 168]

Phytotoxicity and Scalicide Efficacy of Citrus Spray Oils
G.A.C. Beattie and L.E. Rippon [pg. 171]

Relative Susceptibilities of Different Species/Varieties of Citrus to Leaf-Miner, Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton
S.P. Singh and N.S. Rao [pg. 174]


Recognition and Control of Citrus Virus Diseases in Australia
L.R. Fraser [pg. 178]

Strains of Exocortis and Gummy Pitting; Symptoms in Poncirus Trifoliata and Citrus spp.
L.R. Fraser and P. Broadbent  [pg. 181]

Rejuvenation and Virus Elimination of Old Citrus Clones
G.S. Bredell, J.H. Grobler and P.J. Muller [pg. 185]

Telespectroradiometer Study of Citrus Trees (Reflectance of Young Tree Decline-Affected and Healthy Citrus Tree Canopies Using a Mobile Telespectroradiometer Data System)
G.H. Edwards, T.A. Wheaton, T. Davis and C.H. Blazquez [pg. 188]

Greasy Spot of Citrus
C.R. Wellings and R.W. Emmett [pg. 192]

Factors in Early Testing for Citrus Mal Secco Resistance
N. Luisi, V. De Cicco, G. Cutuli and M. Salerno [pg. 197]

Epidemiology and Control of Citrus Scab in Florida
J.O. Whiteside [pg. 200]

Epidemiology and Control of Citrus Blast
V. De Cicco, N. Luisi and M. Salerno [pg. 204]

Disorders of Ellendale Tangor and Hickson Mandarin
P. Broadbent, L.R. Fraser and R.F. Fry [pg. 207]


Benefits and Problems of Herbicide Use in Citriculture
L.S. Jordan [pg. 209]

Effect of Soil Types and Rootstocks on Root Distribution and Leaf Composition of Citrus Trees
E.H. Mikhail and B.M. El-Zeftawi [pg. 214]

Citrus Response to Soil Profile Drainage, Deep Tillage and Liming
D V. Calvert, H.W. Ford, E.H. Steward and F.G. Martin [pg. 217]

Soil Management in Citrus Orchards in South Australia
R.R. Cant [pg. 219]

Effects of Soil Management on Soil Temperatures in an Orange Orchard
P.G.J. Weerts and P.R. Cary [pg. 221]


The Prospects of Water Management for Optimum Citrus Growth and Production
H. Bielorai [pg. 227]

Salinity Management in Citrus
M. Boaz [pg. 233]

Developments in Undertree Irrigation Systems in the Murray Valley
G.H. Simpson [pg. 234]

Trickle Irrigation of Young Citrus on Coarse Sands
J. Slack, J.W. Turpin, J.H. Duncan and O.L. McKay [pg. 236]

Effect of Water Availability on Irrigation Schedules Used by Citrus Growers
M.R. Till and P.J. Cole [pg. 238]

Water Quality and Irrigation Design
M.F. Pietsch [pg. 241]

Citrus Trickle Irrigation Trials
A. Scuderi and G. Raciti [pg. 244]

Citrus Seed Germination as Influenced by Water Potential and Salinity
R.G. Mobayen and F.L. Milthorpe [pg. 247]


Understanding of Plant Processes as a Basis for Successful Growth Regulation in Citrus
S.P. Monselise [pg. 250]

Effects of Various Abscission Chemicals on Fruit Loosening of Citrus
B.M. El-Zeftawi [pg. 255]

Abscission Chemicals for Late Valencia Oranges in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Areas of New South Wales
R.J. Hutton [pg. 257]

The Influence of Rootstock on the Response of Valencia Orange Trees to Applied Growth-Regulators
G.I. Moss and K.B. Bevington [pg. 260]

Use of Growth Regulators in the Control of Cropping of Mandarin Varieties
S. Iwahori [pg. 263]

IZAA (5-chloroindazol-8-acetic acid ethyl ester) as a New Thinning Agent of Satsuma Mandarin (C. unshiu Marc.)
K. Hirose, I. Iwagaki and K. Suzuki [pg. 270]

Ethephon Thinned Heavy Crops of Valencia Oranges in Three Widely Spaced Districts of Australia
P.T. Gallasch, K.B. Bevington, D. Hocking and G.I. Moss [pg. 273]

Thinning Imperial Mandarins With Ethephon Increased Fruit Size and Grower Returns
P.T. Gallasch [pg. 276]


Effects of Fertilization of Citrus on Fruit Quality and Ground Water Nitrate-Pollution Potential
T.W. Embleton, W.W. Jones, C. Pallares and R.G. Platt [pg. 280]

Rate and Timing of Nitrogen Application to Navel Oranges: Effects on Yield and Fruit Quality
W.V. Mungomery, K.R. Jorgensen and J.A. Barnes [pg. 285]

The Effect of Phosphorus and Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Development on Growth of Citrus in a Sandmount Series Soil
R.G. Weir, D.B. Letham, P. Broadbent and P.J. Nicholls [pg. 288]

The Effect of Phosphorus on Fruit Quality, Leaf Analysis and Yield of Valencia Oranges
R.G. Weir, K.B. Bevington, J.H. Duncan and F.W. Cradock [pg. 292]

Diagnosis of the Nutritive Status of Citrus
O. Carpena Artes [pg. 295]

The Citrus Leaf and Soil Analysis System in Queensland
K.R. Jorgensen and G.H. Price [pg. 297]

Analysis of Orange Juice for Mineral Content as a Diagnostic Aid to Fertilizer Practice with Special Reference to Fruit Juice Quality
G.I. Moss and M.L. Higgins [pg. 300]

The Biuret Content of Urea for Foliar Application to Citrus
J.B. Robinson [pg. 302]

Relationships Between N, K and Fe and Different Ca Forms in Lemon Tree Leaves
O. Carpena Artes, A. Leon, S. Llorente and C. De La Pena [pg. 304]


Citrus Tree Size Control: Adapting Hedging, Topping and Pruning Practices to Various Orchard Designs and Tree Spacings
J.E. Fucik [pg. 309]

Effect of Time of Hedging on Shoot Growth and Flowering in Citrus
P.E. Bacon and K.B. Bevington [pg. 314]

Commercial Application of Virus Induced Dwarfing
J.H. Duncan, R.S. Sproule and K.B. Bevington [pg. 317]

Citrus Tree Spacing and Size Control
R.L. Phillips [pg. 319]

Growth of Woody Frame of the Grapefruit Tree (Citrus paridisi Macf.)
F.M. Turrell, R.H. Young, S.W. Austin and M.J. Garber [pg. 325]


New Technology in Citrus Management
J.E. Pehrson [pg. 329]

Organizational Structure of the Australian Citrus Growing Industry
H. Cope [pg. 331]

Citrus Extension by the French Research Institutes With Special Reference to Fertilizer Advice in Corsica
P. Martin-Prevel and J. Cassin [pg. 332]

Are All Quarantine Entry Conditions Applied to Markets in Citrus Growing Countries Still Justified?
J.H. Blick [pg. 335]

A Summary of the 1978 Meeting of ISC Through the Grower's Eyes
I.S. Tolley [pg. 336]



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